CUFONSM 4602d AISS UNIT HISTORY SAMPLER


 

A SAMPLER OF ITEMS FROM THE UNIT HISTORY OF
THE 4602d AIR INTELLIGENCE SERVICE SQUADRON
ENT AIR FORCE BASE, COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO
Part 4 of 7 Parts






{Unnumbered Page 1 of 2}

Sq Reg 55-6
HEADQUARTERS
4602D AIR INTELLIGENCE SERVICE SQUADRON
Ent Air Force Base Colorado Springs, Colorado

SQUADRON REGULATION 26 June 1954
NUMBER 55-6

OPERATIONS

Combat Intelligence Team
 

Paragraph  
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
References  . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Responsibility  . . . . . . . . . . 4
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1. Purpose. To define and establish the concept of the 4602d AISS Combat Intelligence Team.

2. Scope. This regulation is applicable to all units of the 4602d Air Intelligence Service Squadron.

3. References. Squadron Regulation 50-3, 56-1, 200-2

4. Responsibility. It is the responsibility of OIC's of 4602d AISS field units to insure compliance with provisions of this regulation.

5. Definition.

   a. Combat Intelligence Team: The smallest operational unit of 4602d AISS which functions as a team in the investigation of downed enemy aircraft or interrogation of enemy crewmen or in training for the performance of the combat mission. The team will consist of one officer or noncommissioned officer and two airmen. At least one of the three team members must have a technical intelligence skill. If one team member has two or more of the required skills, that advantage will not obviate the necessity for the teams to have three members, each of whom will have a minimum of one of the three required skills.

   b. Team Commander: The one officer or noncommissioned officer in charge of the Intelligence Team will be designated the Team Commander.

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Sq Reg 55-6

BY ORDER OF THE COMMANDER

OFFICIAL: RAY L. JONES
Major, USAF
Adjutant

/s/
RAY L. JONES
Major, USAF
Adjutant

DISTRIBUTION: "D"

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{Unnumbered Page 1 of 2}

HEADQUARTERS

AIR DEFENSE COMMAND
Colorado Springs, Colorado

20 January 1954
Mr. Norman Philcox
Liaison Section
Federal Bureau OF Investigation
9th and Pennsylvania
Washington, D.C.

Dear Mr. Philcox:

Colonel White recently held his semi-annual Commanders' Conference for Flights and Detachments of the 4602nd Air Intelligence Service Squadron. I addressed the conference at its start and covered among other things the need for establishing effective liaison and working relationships with pertinent elements of the FBI. As background. I covered the nature and wherefore of relations and business with local law enforcement agencies. I stated my understanding of the agreement reached at the conference in your offices which I attended during December.

All present at the 4602nd Commanders' Conference were apparently in full understanding and agreement and reported excellent progress in field relationships with local FBI agents.

Last Friday, 15 January, I was informed in a telephone conversation with Colonel George Perry in Washington, that certain incidents had been reported which seemed to indicate either a different interpretation or a misunderstanding by 4602nd personnel or by FBI agents or both in three different parts of the country.

This was further clarified on 18 January in another conversation with Colonel Perry. There is undoubtedly some basic difference in our previous interpretation of agreements reached at the Washington conference in December. As a result of my 18 January conversation with Colonel Perry, I believe I am fully aware of the Bureau's interpretation and wishes. As a result, I have had Colonel White clarify his directives and my advice to his conference by sending new TWX instructions to the field.

Because understanding is even more difficult at a distance, I am inclosing a copy of these latest instructions for the perusal and comment of the Bureau. I would appreciate early advice if there is any disagreement with or suggested addition to these instructions.

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Mr. Norman Philcox, FBI - 20 Jan 1954

I feel certain I correctly assessed the governing spirit of our conference and agreement in Washington. The basic mission of the 4602nd was recognized together with the need for an understanding of that mission and assistance to it where practical by law enforcement agencies throughout the country. I believe we recognized the need for this assistance and the prior preparation therefore as being a basic part of one of the vital elements of our national air defense.

On the other hand, we recognized the basic legal and traditional relationship of the FBI to all law enforcement agencies. Because of the necessity to avoid any possible confusion in the minds of anyone, and especially of law enforcement agencies, it was agreed that the manner and amount of 4602nd liaison and assistance arrangements with law enforcement agencies were legally and properly the responsibility of the FBI. Only in the actual manner of how the FBI proposed to exercise that responsibility was there any misunderstanding on the part of myself or my representatives. We are glad to correct any wrong interpretations we have had. I sincerely hope that the enclosure meets FBI approval and understanding. If not it will be amended accordingly. At the risk of repetition, we feel that effective and smooth arrangements for law enforcement agencies to assist the 4602nd as practical, are an essential and important aspect of preparing foe the air defense of our country. Hence we greatly appreciate the past and continuing efforts of the FBI to this end.

Sincerely yours,

W.M. BURGESS
Brigadier General, USAF
DCS/Intelligence

cc: Col George Perry
Exec, D/I, USAF
Rm 4A940, Pentagon
Wash 25, D.C.

THIS IS A TRUE COPY

   /s/
HENSON R. DEBRULER
Major, USAF

2

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{Unnumbered Page 1 of 1}

INFORMATION COPY FOR COMMANDER: 4602D AISS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION
WASHINGTON 25, D.C.
January 26, 1954

Brigadier General W.M. Burgess
Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence
Air Defense Command
Ent Air Force Base
Colorado Springs, Colorado

Dear General Burgess:

I wish to acknowledge your letter of January 20, 1954, addressed to Mr. Philcox of our Liaison Section. Your instructions issued to the Flight and Detachment Commanders, 4602d Air Intelligence Service Squadron, by the AISS Headquarters on January 19, 1954, have been reviewed and appear to be in accordance with our previous agreement and understanding. I wish to express my appreciation for your prompt handling of this matter and for your past efforts in effecting satisfactory liaison relations between the AISS and the FBI

Sincerely yours,

   /s/
John Edgar Hoover
Director

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{The First Page (Cover Page)}

SECRET

History of
4602d AIR INTELLIGENCE SERVICE SQUADRON

RM-57-1634

VOL. 1
SECRET
1 JULY - 31 DEC. 1954

4602D AISS Classified
Document Log # 55 0534

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{The Second Page (Title Page)}

SECRET

S Q U A D R O N   H I S T O R Y

4602d

Air Intelligence Service Squadron

Air Defense Command

1 July to 31 December 1954






Approved by: Prepared and written by:
   /s/                                                            /s/
Major E. R Manfrin                                  Captain Nicholas G. Handgis
M & S OIC                                             Squadron Historian

Approved by:

    /s/
Colonel John M. White, JR.
Commander

RM 57-1634
SECRET

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{ Page 1 (Part)}

SECRET

I. SURVEY OF PERIOD

...

The beginning of this period marked a new phase of squadron development. The activation phase was over. Reassessment and standardization of directives and policies was completed early in this historical period. The squadron entered into a period of determining the best solutions to problems and procedures of training, liaison, personnel, records maintenance and supply and administration. Refinement of squadron policies and directives was the keynote of this period.

...

SECRET

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{ Page 12}

SECRET

Unidentified Flying Object (UFOB) Program

With the publication of AFR 200-2 [3] in August 1954, ADC was given the responsibility of conducting all field investigations within the Zone of the Interior to determine the identity of any UFOB. Further, AFR 200-2 noted that the 4602d AISS had the capability to investigate these reports for ADC, and stipulated that Air Force activities should establish and maintain liaison with the nearest element of the 4602d. Thus the 4602d AISS was indirectly designated as ADC investigating and collection agency of UFOB reports. The Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio was responsible for analyzing and evaluating the reports. The 4602d, therefore, worked directly with ATIC in formalizing agreements, plans and policies, and in the actual conduct of the UFOB program. On the 17th and 18th of November, 1954, the Commander, 4602d AISS and his staff met with ATIC representative, Captain Charles Hardin, and Doctor Allen Hynek, USAF Contract Astronomer, to discuss ATIC-4602d AISS relationships in the investigation and processing of Unidentified Flying Object reports. During the course of the conference, general information was exchanged relative to the UFOB program, procedures were developed relative to the handling of UFOB reports and the criteria for the evaluation of reports and conducting investigations were discussed. This meeting resulted in a report being drawn up and submitted to ATIC [4] wherein were recommended certain agreements and

_______________________________________________________
3 AF reg 200-2, dtd 12 Aug 1954 Doc 28
4 Lttr to ATIC: Report of visit of Representatives Doc 29

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{ Page 13}

SECRET

procedures relative to the UFOB program. ATIC, in a 1st endorsement to this letter report, concurred in the agreements and procedures recommended. [5] Following the above agreement, ATIC sent to the 4602d a UFOB Guide [6] designed for use in determining the feasibility of follow-up investigation of Unidentified Flying Object reports and in identifying the objects or phenomena concerned. At the close of this period the squadron was in the process of compiling a detailed UFOB Guide of its own. The squadron was also in receipt of U.S. Air Force Technical Information Forms [7] for use in questioning observers of unidentified flying phenomena.

In an effort to establish firm Squadron and ADC policies regarding the UFOB program, the 4602d submitted to ADC, for comments and approval, draft copies of the following Regulations and Memoranda: [8]

Proposed ADCR, Subj: UFOB's
Proposed ADC Staff memorandum, Subj: UFOB's
Proposed 4602d Squadron Regulation, Subj: UFOB's

Since the receipt of AFR 200-2 (UFOB), dtd 12 August, 1954, to 31 December, 1954, the 4602d AISS had received 112 preliminary UFOB reports. Out of these, twenty-five (25) follow-up field investigations were conducted by 4602d personnel. Although the 4602d was responsible for only for follow-up field investigation and reporting and not the final analysis and identification of UFOB's, nevertheless, seventy-seven (77) reports were resolved by analysis at this squadron.

_______________________________________________________
6 UFOB Guide
7 USAF Technical Information Sheet Doc 30
8 Proposed drafts, copies of ADCR-UFOB; ADC Staff Doc 31
Memorandum-UFOB: 4602d AISS Reg UFOB Doc 32

SECRET

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{ Page 14 (part)}

SECRET

Of all the UFOB reports forwarded to ATIC, only thirty-five (35) were unresolved. [9]

...

_______________________________________________________
9 Include 1 to Command Data Doc 15

...

SECRET

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{Title Page}

CONFIDENTIAL

GUIDE FOR 4602D AISS
COMMITTEE DISCUSSIONS

4602D AISS Classified
Document Log # 54 1021

CONFIDENTIAL

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{ Page 1 (Part)}

CONFIDENTIAL

CONAD INTELLIGENCE CONFERENCE

1 - 3 November 1954

GUIDE FOR 4602D AISS COMMITTEE DISCUSSIONS

I. INTRODUCTION: There are two problems for consideration by this committee which are related. The first part of the problem is to determine who shall exercise operational control over the field units of the 4602d AISS. The second problem pertains to the difficulties experienced by our field units in obtaining sufficient logistical support from the base support organization. the problems attendant to the tenant status of 4602d field units will in some degree be affected by the recommendations of the committee with respect to the first problem. Namely, that of who will exercise operational control. Therefore, the problem of operational control will be considered first.

...

CONFIDENTIAL

This document consists of 75 pages 4602D AISS
Classified
Copy 14 of 15 copies. Document Log # 54 1021

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{ Page 8 (Part)}

CONFIDENTIAL

...

I. The following activities are presently controlled or monitored by the Squadron Headquarters:

...

CONFIDENTIAL

8

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{ Page 9 (Part)}

CONFIDENTIAL

...

3. The program of investigation of Unidentified Flying Objects.

...

CONFIDENTIAL

9

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{ Page 23 (Part)}

CONFIDENTIAL

...

M. UFOBS

1.   Who will provide funding citation for UFOB investigations?
2.   Who will control preliminary investigations?
3.   Who will provide transpiration for UFOB investigations?
4.   Who will determine the mode of transportation of UFOB investigations?
5.   Who will be responsible for notifying the appropriate agencies?
6.   Who will evaluate and determine the requirement for a preliminary UFOB investigation?
7.   Who will determine the need for a follow-up field investigation of UFOBS?
8.   Who will designate the personnel to conduct preliminary and follow-up field investigations of
       UFOBS?
9.   Who will evaluate the field investigations prepared on Form 112?
10. Who will determine whether all efforts to identify the UFOB have been exhausted?
11. Who will maintain centralized records of all UFOBS?

CONFIDENTIAL

23

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{ Page 24 (Part)}

CONFIDENTIAL

12. Who will maintain liaison with ATIC on UFOBS forwarded to ATIC for further analysis?
13. Who will provide for reproduction and distribution of Form 112 UFOB reports?
14. Who will establish the standards for proper UFOB Investigations?
15. Who will establish the proper reporting procedures?
16. Who will effect the proper disposition of UFOB evidence? (Photographs and materiel)?
17. Who will control the release of information concerning UFOBS?
18. Who will select the appropriate unit to conduct the UFOB investigation?
19. Who will prepare the subsequent year's budget for UFOB investigations?

...

CONFIDENTIAL

23

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{Cover, Weekly Bulletin (sample copy in History file)}

WEEKLY BULLETIN

{Drawing showing a 3-men parachuting from a 2-engine propeller driven cargo-type airplane into the countryside}

4602
Air Intelligence
Service Squadron

DATE OCT 15 1954 ISSUE 54-42

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{Page 10 (Part)}

(7) Captain Chaney, Headquarters ADC, was contacted to determine the expected effect Operation Flying Cloud will have on reports of UFOB's. Captain Chaney stated that this operation has been in effect for some time and he does not anticipate a rush of UFOB reports.

{ FOIA request for records of Operation Flying Cloud have produced the information that it was a high-altitude balloon-delivered weapons system test program.}

...

(10) Telephone conversation between Major Cybulski and Captain Matsuo, OIC, Flight 3-B, reference the ATIC letter of agreement on UFOB investigations, resulted in the information that Captain Matsuo will contact ATIC again to determine the status of this letter of agreement. This conversation on 13 October 1954, pointed out again the fact that the letter of agreement is necessary for the full implementation of AFR 200-2. Captain Matsuo stated that he would ask the ATIC UFOB Officer to expedite subject letter.

...

10

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{Line drawing map of continental map of U.S. with symbols indicating disposition of UFOB sightings}

SECRET
UFOB SIGHTINGS
12 AUG. 54 - 31 DEC. 54

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{First Unnumbered Page of 4}

*AFL 200-5
1-5

AIR FORCE REGULATION DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
No. 200-2 WASHINGTON, 12 AUGUST 1954

INTELLIGENCE

Unidentified Flying Objects Reporting (Short Title: FLYOBRPT)
 

Paragraph  
Purpose and Scope . . . . . . . 1
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Responsibility  . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
ZI Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Reporting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
Release of Facts. . . . . . . . . . 9

1. Purpose and Scope: This Regulation establishes procedures for information and evidence materiel pertaining to unidentified flying objects and sets forth the responsibility of Air Force activities in this regard. It applies to all Air Force Activities.

2. Definitions:

   a. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOB) relates to any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object.

   b. Familiar Objects - Include balloons, astronomical bodies, birds, and so forth.

3. Objectives: Air Force interest in unidentified flying objects is twofold: First as a possible threat to the security of the United States and its forces, and secondly, to determine technical aspects involved.

   a. Air Defense. To date the flying objects reported have imposed no threat to the security of the
       United States and its Possessions. However, the possibility that new air vehicles, hostile aircraft
       or missiles may first be regarded as flying objects by the initial observer is real. This requires
       that sightings be reported as rapidly and as completely as information permits.

   b. Technical Analysis thus far has failed to provide a satisfactory explanation for a number of
       sightings reported. The Air Force will continue to collect and analyze reports until all sightings
       can be satisfactorily explained., bearing in mind that:

      (1) To measure scientific advances, the Air Force must be informed on experimentation and
           development of new air vehicles.

      (2) The possibility exists that an air vehicle of revolutionary configuration may be developed.

      (3) The reporting of all pertinent factors will have a direct bearing on the success of the technical
           analysis.

4. Responsibility:

   a. Reporting. Commanders of all Air Force activities will report all  information and evidence that
       may come to their attention, including that  received from adjacent commands of the other
       services and from civilians.

   b. Investigation. Air Defense Command will conduct all field  investigations within the ZI, to
       determine the identity of any UFOB.

   c. Analysis. The Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base,
       Ohio, will analyze and evaluate: All information and evidence reported within the ZI after the Air
       Defense Command has exhausted all efforts to identify the UFOB; and all information and
       evidence collected in overseas areas.

   d. Cooperation. All activities will cooperate with Air Defense Command representatives to insure
       the economical and prompt success of an investigation, including the furnishing of air and ground
       transportation, when feasible.

5. Guidance. The thoroughness and quality of a report or investigation into incidents of unidentified flying objects are limited only by the resourcefulness and imagination of the person responsible for preparing the report. Guidance set forth below is based on experience and has been found helpful in evaluating incidents.

   a. Theodolite measurements of changes of azimuth and elevation and angular size.

   b. Interception, identification, or air search

_________
*This Regulation supersedes AFR 200-2, 26 August 1953,
Including Change 200-2A, 2 November 1953.

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AFL 200-5
5-7

      action. these actions may be taken if appropriate and within the scope of existing air defense
      regulations.

   c. Contact with local aircraft control and Warning (AC&W) units, ground observer corps (GOC)
       posts and filter centers, pilots and crews of aircraft aloft at the time and place of sighting
       whenever feasible, and any other persons or organizations which may have factual data bearing
       on the UFOB or may be able to offer corroborating evidence, electronic or otherwise.

   d. Consultation with military and civilian weather forecasters to obtain data on: Tracks of weather
       balloons released in the area, since these often are responsible for sightings; and any unusual
       meteorological activity which may have a bearing on the UFOB.

   e. Consultation with astronomers in the area to determine whether any astronomical body or
       phenomenon would account for or have bearing on the observation.

   f. Contact with military and civilian tower operators, air operations offices, and so forth, to
      determine whether the sighting could be the result of misidentification of known aircraft.

   g. Contact with persons who might have knowledge of experimental aircraft of unusual
       configuration, rocket and guided missile firings, and so forth in the area.

6. ZI Collection. The Air Defense Command has a direct interest in the facts pertaining to UFOB's reported within the ZI and has, in the 4602d Air Intelligence Service Squadron (AISS), the capability to investigate these reports. The 4602d AISS is composed of specialists trained for field collection and investigation of matters of air intelligence interest which occur within the zone of the ZI. This squadron is highly mobile and deployed throughout the ZI as follows: Flights are attached to air defense divisions, detachments are attached to each of the defense forces, and the squadron headquarters is located at Peterson Field, Colorado, adjacent to Headquarters, Air Defense Command. Air Force activities, therefore, should establish and maintain liaison with the nearest element of this squadron. This can be accomplished by contacting the appropriate echelon of the Air Defense Command as outlined above.

   a. All Air Force activities are authorized to conduct such preliminary investigation as may be
       required for reporting purposes; however, investigations should not be carried beyond this
       point, unless such action is requested by the 4602d AISS.

   b. On occasions - after initial reports submitted -additional data is required which can be
       developed more economically by the nearest Air Force activity, such as narrative statements,
       sketches, marked maps, charts, and so forth. Under such circumstances, appropriate
       commanders will be contacted by the 4602d AISS.

   c. Direct communication between echelons of the 4602d AISS and Air Force activities is
       authorized.

7. Reporting. Information relating to unidentified flying objects will be reported promptly. The method (electrical or written) and priority of the dispatch will be selected in accordance with the apparent intelligence value of the information. In most instances, reports will be made by electrical means: Information over 24 hours old will be given a "deferred" precedence. reports over 3 days old will be made by written report prepared on AF Form 112, Air Intelligence Information report, and AF Form 112a, Supplement to AF Form 112,

   a. Addressees:

      (1) Electrical Reports. All electrical reports will be multiple addressed to:

         (a) Commander, Air Defense Command, Ent Air Force Base, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

         (b) Nearest Air Division (Defense) (For ZI only.)

         (c) Commander, Air Technical Intelligence Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

         (d) Director of Intelligence, Headquarters, USAF, Washington 25, D.C.

      (2) Written Reports:

         (a) Within the ZI, reports will be submitted direct to the Air Defense Command. Air Defense
              Command will reproduce the report and distribute it to interested ZI intelligence agencies.
              The original report together with the notation of the distribution effected then will be
              forwarded to the Director of Intelligence, Headquarters, USAF, Washington 25, D.C.

        (b) Outside the ZI, reports will be submitted direct to the Director of Intelligence,
              Headquarters, USAF, Washington 25, D.C. as prescribed in "Intelligence Collection
              Instructions" (ICI), June 1954.

   b. Short Title. "UFOB" will appear at the beginning of the text of electrical messages and in the
       subject of written reports.

   c. Negative Data. The word "negative"

2

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AFL 200-5
7-8

      in reply to any numbered item of the report format will indicate that all logical leads were
      developed without success. The phrase "not applicable" (N/A) will indicate that the question
      does not apply to the sighting being investigated.

   d. Report Format Reports will include the following numbered items:

      (1) Description of the object(s):

         (a) Shape

         (b) Size compared to known object (use one of the following terms: Head of a pin, pea, dime,
              nickel, quarter, half dollar, silver dollar, baseball, grapefruit, or basketball) held in the hand
              at about arms length.

         (c) Color.

         (d) Number.

         (e) Formation, if more than one.

         (f) Any discernible features or details.

         (g) Tail, trail, or exhaust, including size of same compared to size of object(s).

         (h) Sound. If heard, describe sound.

         (i) Other pertinent or unusual features.

      (2) Description of course of object(s):

         (a) What first called the attention of the observer(s) to the object(s)?

         (b) Angle of elevation and azimuth of the objects when first observed.

         (c) Angle of elevation and azimuth of the objects upon disappearance.

         (d) Description of flight path and maneuvers of object(s).

         (e) Manner of disappearance of objects(s)

         (f) Length of time in sight

      (3) Manner of observation:

         (a) Use one or a combination of the following items: Ground-visual, ground-electronic,
              air-electronic. (If electronic, specify type of radar.)

         (b) Statement as to optical aids (telescopes, binoculars, and so forth) used and description
               thereof.

         (c) If the sighting is made while airborne, give type of aircraft, identification number, altitude,
              heading, speed and home station.

      (4) Time and date of sighting:

         (a) Zulu time-date group of sighting.

         (b) Light conditions (use one of the following terms): Night, day, dawn, dusk.

      (5) Locations of observer(s). Exact latitude and longitude of each observer or Georef position,
           or position with reference to a known landmark.

      (6) Identifying information of all observer(s):

         (a) Civilian - Name, age, mailing address, occupation.

         (b) Military - Name, grade, organization, duty, and estimate of reliability.

      (7) Weather and winds-aloft conditions at time and place of sightings:

         (a) Observer(s) account of weather conditions.

         (b) Report from nearest AWS or U.S. Weather Bureau Office of wind direction and velocity
               in degrees and knots at surface, 6,000', 10,000', 16,000', 20,000', 30,000', 50,000', and
               80,000', if available.

         (c) ceiling.

         (d) Visibility.

         (e) Amount of cloud cover.

         (f) Thunderstorms in area and quadrant in which located.

      (8) Any other unusual activity or condition, meteorological, astronomical, or otherwise, which
            might account for the sighting.

      (9) Interception and identification action taken. (Such action may be taken whenever feasible,
           complying with existing air defense directives.)

      (10) Location of any air traffic in the general area at the time of the sighting.

      (11) Position title and comments of the preparing officer, including his preliminary analysis of the
             possible cause of the sighting(s).

   e. Security. Reports should be unclassified unless inclusion of data required by c and d below
       mandates a higher classification.

8. Evidence. The existence of physical evidence (photographs or materiel) will be promptly reported.

   a. Photographic:

      (1) Visual: the negative and two prints will be forwarded, all original film, including wherever
           possible both prints and negatives, will be titled or otherwise properly identified as to place,
           time, and date of the incident

3

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{Page 4 (Unnumbered)}

AFL 200-5
8-9

(see "Intelligence Collection Instructions" (ICI), June 1954)

      (2) Radar: Two copies of each print will be forwarded. Prints of radarscope photography will
           be titled in accordance with AFR 95-7 and forwarded in accordance with AFR 95-6.

   b. Materiel Suspected or actual items of materiel which come into the possession of any Air Force
       Echelon will be safeguarded in such manner as to prevent any defacing or alteration which might
       reduce its value for intelligence examination and analysis.

9. Release of Facts: Headquarters USAF will release summaries of evaluated data which will inform the public on this subject. In response to local inquiries, it is permissible to in form news media representatives on UFOB's when the object is positively identified as a familiar object (see paragraph 2b), except that the following type of data warrants protection and should not be revealed: Names of principles, intercept and investigation procedures, and classified radar data. For those objects which are not explainable, only the fact that ATIC will analyze the data is worthy of release, due to many unknowns involved.

By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force:

Official: N.F. Twining
K.E. THIEBAUD Chief of Staff, United States Air Force
Colonel, USAF
Air Adjutant General

DISTRIBUTION:
S; X
ONI, Department of the Navy 200
G-2, Department of the Army 10

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{Unnumbered Page 1 of 4}

HEADQUARTERS
4602D AIR INTELLIGENCE SERVICE SQUADRON
Ent Air Force Base
Colorado Springs, Colorado

AISOP
23 November 1954

SUBJECT: Report of Visit of ATIC Representatives

TO: Commander
Air technical Intelligence Center
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
Dayton, Ohio

1. On 17 and 18 November 1954, the Commander, 4602dAISS and his staff met with Captain Charles Hardin, ATIC and Doctor Allen Hynek, USAF Contract Astronomer, for the purpose of discussing ATIC-4602d AISS relationships in the investigation and processing of Unidentified Flying Object reports. During the course of the conference general information was exchanged relative to the UFOB program, procedures were developed relative to the handling of UFOB reports and the criteria for the evaluation of reports and conducting investigations were discussed.

2. The evaluation of all UFOB reports as well as the lines of inquiry of investigations, will be governed by the application of certain hypotheses to the data available. In the majority of cases, provided the information concerning the sightings is sufficiently complete, the data will suggest that the sighting was probably some known object or natural phenomena. For example, the data available might suggest to the investigator the hypothesis that the object was an aircraft. A check list will then be applied to the data using the hypothesis that the sighting was an aircraft. the check list will contain those items which, in combination, characterize aircraft from other possible objects or phenomena. For example, if the object was an aircraft, then there should have been noise, there should have been radar observation I certain areas, etc. The application of these check lists will suggest the lines of a follow-up investigation in the event the data is insufficient to satisfy the elements of proof necessary to identification. ATIC will furnish the 4602d AISS with the check lists referred to above which will assist in the identification of UFOB's and will cover, for example, aircraft, balloons, astronomical phenomena, guided missiles, etc. In addition a special evaluation of preliminary UFOB reports must be made to determine whether follow-up investigations can reasonably be expected to result in additional reliable and usable data.

3. Evaluation of Preliminary reports

   a. ATIC will furnish the 4602d AISS with "rule of thumb" criteria to be used by the Squadron
       Headquarters in determining the necessity for

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Hq, 4602D AISS, Ent AFB, Colorado Springs, Colo. subj:
Report of Visit of ATIC Representatives

       a follow-up, field investigation of a UFOB report. These criteria will cover, among others, the
       following subjects:

      (1) Duration of sighting

      (2) Number of persons reporting the sighting.

      (3) Distance from location of sighting to nearest 4602D AISS field unit.

      (4) Reliability of person or persons reporting the sighting.

      (5) Number of independent sightings reported.

      (6) The value in obtaining additional information immediately.

      (7) Existence of physical evidence (photographs, material, hardware).

   b. It was noted that a single extraordinary circumstance might require follow-up, field investigation
       even though the general application of the criteria furnished by ATIC indicates that further
       investigation would probably yield little additional information.

   c. In general follow-up field investigation of a preliminary UFOB report will not be warranted
       when the hypothesis suggested by the preliminary report of the incident cannot be tested by
       facilities available.

4. Exhaustion of Effort in the Investigation of UFOB's: Effort will be considered as exhaustive when every logical, physical hypothesis suggested by a qualified report of the incident has been tested by the facilities available.

   a. Qualified preliminary reports shall be considered to be those which merit further investigation
       under the criteria set forth in paragraph 3 above.

5. Unsolved Cases: A case shall be considered unsolved after every suggested hypothesis has been tested by available facilities and a large percentage of the data in the report does not correlate with the characteristics of known objects or natural phenomena.

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Hq, 4602D AISS, Ent AFB, Colorado Springs, Colo. subj:
Report of Visit of ATIC Representatives

6. The following procedures were agreed upon:

   a. In case a UFOB sighting is reported initially by non-Air Force sources
in letter form to either ATIC or the 4602d AISS, the file card will be made in
duplicate by the recipient, and one copy forwarded to the other agency. This
card will indicate that the UFOB was reported by letter and will show the
action taken.

   b. ATIC will be forwarded a file card indicating the action taken by the
4602d AISS on preliminary reports transmitted to the 4602d by electrical
means.

   c. The results of follow-up field investigations made by the 4602d AISS
and reported on AF Form 112 will, in all cases, be sent to ATIC, DI USAF, and
such other agencies as the Commander, 4602d AISS, deems necessary.

   d. ATIC may require specific information for aid in analyzing a reported UFOB sighting which can
       be furnished by a field unit of the 4602d AISS. provided travel is not involved, ATIC may
       contact the appropriate unit directly. In case ATIC desires detailed investigation or action which
       would necessitate travel, request will be made by ATIC to the Commander, 4602d AISS.

   e. File card reflecting action taken or conclusions reached by ATIC on either a preliminary or
       follow-up UFOB report will be sent to Commander, 4602d AISS under the following
       circumstances.

      (1) When conclusions of ATIC relative to identification of the sighting are at variance with those
           reached by 4602d AISS.

      (2) When additional action is initiated by ATIC following the completion of action by the 4602d
           AISS.

7. Exchange of information: As a result of the ATIC experience in the field of investigations of UFOB reports, information of a general interest was discussed during the visit of ATIC representatives and will be furnished to the 4602d AISS on a continuing basis. Examples of such information follow:

   a. Grid cameras. Information relative to the present distribution of grid cameras and changes in the
       current distribution.

   b. Statistics. Consolidation of statistics reflecting trends.

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Hq, 4602D AISS, Ent AFB, Colorado Springs, Colo. subj:
Report of Visit of ATIC Representatives

total reports and studies conducted by contract agencies.

   c. Examples of proper and improper UFOB reporting.

   d. List of standard replies to letters requesting action or information concerning reported sightings.

8. It is requested that the guides for evaluation of reports referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3 above be furnished at the earliest practicable date. Concurrence or comments relative to the procedures and agreements contained herein are solicited.

   /s/
JOHN M. WHITE JR.
Colonel, USAF
Commander

ATIAE-5 1st Ind

AIR TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE CENTER,
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
10 DEC 1954

TO: Commander, 4602d AISS (ADC) Ent Air Force Base Colorado Springs, Colorado

1. The Air Technical Intelligence Center concurs in the agreements and procedures as outlined in basic letter.

2. A "Standard Operating Procedure" is being prepared for use in the unidentified flying object program. This will be furnished to Hq 4602d AISS as a suggested guide.

3. The SOP will include the procedures listed in the basic letter together with guides for evaluation of reports and criteria for determining the necessity for field investigations.

FOR THE COMMANDER

/s/
R. C. SCHUM
CWO, USAF
Asst. Adj.

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{Unnumbered Title (cover) Page (Enclosure No.1 to previous letter)}

UFOB GUIDE

This guide is designed for use in determining the feasibility of follow-
up investigation of Unidentified Flying Object reports and in identifying the
objects or phenomena concerned.

AIR TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE CENTER
WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OHIO

encl #1

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{Unnumbered Page 1}

PART I

FOLLOW-UP INVESTIGATIONS

GENERAL

An UFOB report is worthy of follow-up investigation when it contains information to suggest that a positive identification with a well known phenomenon may be made or when it characterizes an unusual phenomenon. The report should suggest almost immediately, largely by the coherency and clarity of the data, that there is something of identification value and/or scientific value.

In general, reports which should be given consideration are those which involve several reliable observers, together or separately, and which concern sightings of greater duration than one quarter minute. Exception should be made to this when circumstances attending the report are considered to be extraordinary.

Special attention should be given to reports which give promise of a "fix" on the position and to those reports involving trajectories.

RULES OF THUMB

Every UFOB case should be judged individually but there are a number of "rules of thumb," under each of the following headings, which should prove helpful in determining the necessity for follow-up investigation.

1. Duration of Sighting

When the duration of a sighting is less than 15 seconds, the probabilities are great that it is not worthy of follow-up. As a word of caution, however, should a large number of individual observers concur

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on an unusual sighting of a few seconds duration, it should not be dismissed.

When a sighting has covered just a few seconds, the incident, when followed-up in the past, has almost always proved to be meteor or a gross misidentification of a common object owing to the lack of time in which to observe.

2. Number of Persons Reporting the Sighting

Short duration sightings by single individuals are seldom worthy of follow-up.

Two or three competent independent observations carry the weight of 10 or more simultaneous individual observations. As an example, 25 people at one spot may observe a strange light in the sky. This, however, has less weight than two reliable people observing the same light from different locations. In the later case a position-fix is indicated.

3. Distance from Location of Sighting to Nearest Field Unit

Reports which meet the preliminary criterion stated above should all be investigated if their occurrence is in the immediate operating vicinity of the squadron concerned.

For reports involving greater distances, follow-up necessity might be judged as being inversely proportional to the square of the distances concerned. For example, an occurrence 150 miles away might be considered to have four times the importance (other things being equal) than one that is 300 miles away.

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4. Reliability of Person or Persons reporting

In establishing the necessity of follow-up investigation only "short term" reliability of individuals can be employed. Short term reliability is judged from the logic and coherency of the original report and by the age and occupation of the person. Particular attention should be given to whether the occupation involves observation reporting or technical knowledge.

5. Number of Individual Sightings Reported

Two completely individual sightings, especially when separated by a mile or more constitutes sufficient cause for follow-up, assuming previous criterion have not been violated.

6. The Value of Obtaining Additional Information Immediately.

If the information cannot be obtained within seven days, the value of such information is greatly decreased.

It is of great value to obtain additional information immediately if previously stated criteria have been met. Often, if gathered quickly, two or three items (weather conditions, angular speed, changes in trajectory, duration, etc.) are sufficient for immediate evaluation.

If investigation is undertaken after weeks or months the original observers cease to be of value as far as additional new information is concerned. Generally, later interrogation yields only bare repetition of facts originally reported plus an inability on the part of the observer to be objective.

7. Existence of Evidence (Photographs, Material, Hardware)

In cases where any physical evidence exists, a follow-up should

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be made if some of the above criteria have not been met.

CONCLUSION - Part I

It is understood that all above criteria must be evaluated in terms of "common sense." The original report, from its wording and clarity will almost always suggest to the reader whether there is any "paydirt" in the report.

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PART II

IDENTIFICATION CRITERIA

GENERAL

When a UFO report meets, in large measure, the criteria projected in Part I and a follow-up investigation is instituted, then the interrogator should ask what physical object or objects might have served as the original stimulus for the report. The word "object" here includes optical phenomena such as reflections from clouds, sundogs, etc.

Frequently one or perhaps two solutions will be immediately suggested by the nature of the report. The word "solution" cannot be used here in the scientific sense. A solution in UFOB work means that a hypothesis has been arrived at which appears to have the greatest probability of having given rise to the given report.

Following is a group of hypotheses or examples which should prove helpful in arriving at solutions. A check should be made to see how many of the items are satisfied by the report and how many are missing. An effort should be made to obtain any missing items as soon as possible.

Each typical hypothesis is listed on a separate page.

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AIRCRAFT

1. Shape: From conventional to circular or elliptical.

2. Size: Pinpoint to actual.

3. Color: Silver to bright yellow (night - black or color of lights).

4. Speed: Generally only angular speeds can be observed. This depends on distance but small objects crossing major portion of the sky in a minute can be ruled out. Aircraft will nor cross a major portion of the sky in less than a minute whereas a meteor certainly will.

5. Formation: Two to twenty. numbers greater than 20 more likely birds than aircraft.

6. Tails: May or may not have (vapor and exhaust).

7. Sound: Zero to loud shrill or low depending on altitude.

8. Course: Steady, straight or gently curving (not erratic - may appear still if approaching head-on). Right angle turns and sudden reversals, changes in altitude ruled out. Note: Although report may indicate erratic course, if other items check, follow-up should proceed on basis of aircraft because of psychological tendencies of excited people to exaggerate course changes.
9. Time In Sight: More than 15 seconds, generally of the order of a minute or two.

10. Lighting conditions: Night or Day.

11. Radar: Should show normal aircraft returns.

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BALLOONS

1. Shape: Round to cigar or pinpoint

2. Size: Balloons up to a hundred feet will generally appear from pinpoint to size of a pea held at armslength

3. Color: Silver, white or many tints. It may possibly appear dark as when projected against the clouds.

4. Speed: Large scale erratic speed ruled out. In general hovering to slow apparent speed.

5. Formation: Single to cluster.

6. Trails: None.

7. Sound: None.

8. Course: Straight with a gradual ascent, unless falling.

9. Time In Sight: Generally long. Note: Balloon may suddenly burst and disappear.

10. Lighting conditions: Night or day but especially at sunset.

11. Radar: No return except when carrying sonde equipment.

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{Page 8}

METEOR

1. Shape: Round to elongated.

2. Size: Pinpoint to size of moon.

3. Color: Flaming yellow with red, green or blue possible.

4. Speed: Crosses major portion of sky in few seconds except if coming head-on.

5. Formation: Generally single - can break into shower at end of trajectory.  Occasionally (but rare) small groups.

6. Trails: At night almost always a luminous train which can persist as long as half an hour (rarely). daytime meteors are much less frequently observed. In daytime, leaves a whitish to dark smoke trail.

7. Sound: None, although occasionally reported (believed psychological).

8. Course: Generally streaking downward, but not necessarily sharply downward. Can on rare occasion give impression of slight rise.

9. Time In Sight: Longest reported about 30 seconds, generally less than 10.

10. Lighting conditions: Day or night. Mostly night.

11. Radar: Return from meteor itself is highly improbable, however, the train left by a meteor, is a good radar reflector.

12. Other: An exceptionally bright meteor is called a fireball. These are rare but extremely spectacular and on occasion have been known to light surroundings to the brightness of daylight.

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{Page 9}

STARS OR PLANETS

GENERAL

The planets, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are generally brighter than any star, but they twinkle much less (unless very close to the horizon). Stars twinkle a great deal and when near the horizon can give impression of flashing light in many colors.

1. Shape: Pinpoint - starlike.

2. Size: Never appreciable.

3. Color: Yellow with rainbow variations.

4. Speed: Stars apparent speed carries them from east to west in the course of the night but they are often reported as erratic. The effect is psychological, most people being unable to consider a point as being stationary. Occasionally turbulence in the upper atmosphere can cause a star to appear to jump (rare) but somehow twinkling stars give the impression of movement to many people. Note: Just because the report says the light moves does not rule out the possibility of it being a star unless motion is from one part of the sky to another in relatively short time.

5. Formation: There are no clusters of very bright stars but faint stars are grouped in their familiar constellations. Note: A report of 4 or 5 bright clustering lights would rule out stars.

6. Trails: None.

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{Page 10}

7. Sound: None.

8. Course: Always describe a 24 hour circle around pole of sky from east to west.

9. Time In Sight: When clear, stars are always visible. most stars rise or set during the course of the night. Stars low in western sky set within an hour or two. Stars in east, always go higher in the sky.

10. Lighting conditions: Night - Twilight.

11. Radar: None.

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OPTICAL PHENOMENA

GENERAL

This can cover a multitude of things. Original scanning of the report should be made to attempt to determine whether it more likely describes a material object or an optical illusion.

Optical phenomena which have been reported as UFOBs run from reflections on clouds and layers of ice crystals (sundogs) to the many types of mirages. No one set of optical phenomena can be set down as representation for the whole class.

There is no limit to the speed of optical phenomena. Reflections can travel from incredible speed , as in the case of a search-beacon on high clouds, to stationary.

These cases if well reported will almost always warrant follow-up. Their variety and connection with upper atmospheric conditions make these observations especially valuable scientifically.

1. Shape: Generally round but can be elliptical or linear.

2. Size: Starlike to large luminous glow.

3. Color: Generally yellow.

4. Speed: Stationary to fantastic.

5. Formation: Any.

6. Trails: None.

7. Sound: None.

8. Course: Any.

9. Time In Sight: Any

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10. Lighting conditions: Day and night.

11. Radar: No return. In special cases radar response will occasionally have to do with unusual clouds, and meteorological phenomena such as described in Minnaert's book "Light and Color in the Open Air."

12. Other: One of the standard types is the "sundog." In this a large luminous halo is seen around the sun with one to four images of the sun placed along the halo at intervals of 90 degrees. Another report often has to do with a bright planet or even the moon shining through a light overcast. Mirages reflections are said to occur frequently when temperature inversions exist in the atmosphere. If an optical phenomena is suspected, routine check of the meteorological records should be made to establish whether such inversions existed.

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{ CUFONSM NOTE: The following 9 pages, contain a copy of "U. S. AIR FORCE TECHNICAL INFORMATION SHEET" This UFO sighting report form was developed by the Battelle Memorial Institute in conjunction with the USAF during Project STORK.  Several versions of this form were used over the years.  This version is the same as the one reproduced in the book Project Blue Book, edited by Brad Steiger, 1976, ConFucian Press and Ballantine Books, ISBN 0-345-34525-8 }

pp. 1-2 pp.3-4 pp. 5-6 pp. 7-8 pp. 9
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{End of Part 4 of CUFON's 4602d AISS UFO Sampler}

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