Part Two - MADAR

Without MADAR there would not have been MADAR Anomaly 15 and the correlation with the world-famous "WOW! Signal" in 1977. Without the new MADAR-II in 2014 with new technology there would not have been the breakthrough that let to MADAR-III in 2016.

Sometime in the spring of 1957 my classmates in grade school were getting ready to embark on a journey through high school. One of the things that happened that spring at a symposium held at Robert Green Auditorium at Vincennes, Indiana, was an aptitude test given to all of us to determine what courses we would be taking in high school. If you achieved a high score you were placed in the "scientific group". If the scores were lower than a prescribed amount you were placed in the "general group".  I scored high enough for the former, but what I remember most about that several-day symposium were the speakers. One of those speakers was a man by the name of Lewis G. Blevins. In his presentation he briefly mentioned his work for the Air Force on Project SAUCER. At the time I knew nothing about it but later found out that that code name was the one the press knew of in 1948 and the actual code-name was compromised and was really the secret Project SIGN.

I didn't actually meet Blevins in 1957 but just  a few years later, in 1960, when I needed help on the construction of a geiger counter for my senior year high school project, I DID contact him about it. I built the counter and won first prize, BTW. By that time he was one my special advisers and part of my 7-man NICAP team which was authorized on Nov. 17th of that year. One of the first things he suggested was for me to build a UFO detector and he helped me build several prototypes. But it was almost ten years before I had a working model that would actually do more than sound an alarm.


One of the most famous UFO sightings of all time, and the one which "started it all" some might say, was the Kenneth Arnold sighting of June 24th, 1947. Arnold reported seeing 9 objects in formation from his plane over Mt. Ranier, Washington. This was the beginning of the 1947 UFO Wave and it wasn't an isolated case.

That same afternoon, and about the same time that Arnold lost sight of his objects, Fred Johnson, a prospector, reported watching five or six disc-shaped craft as they flew over the Cascade Mountains. He said they were round with a slight tail and about 30 feet in diameter. They were not flying in any sort of formation and as they banked in a turn, the sunlight flashed off them. As they approached, Johnson noticed that his compass began to spin wildly. When the objects finally vanished in the distance, the compass returned to normal.

THIS incident was the subject of one of the studies that was mentioned in the SECRET Project SIGN report. Air Force scientific consultants commented that to produce this effect it would require an electromagnet with 1 billion ampere turns of wire at 1 km!

Blevins had told me he had worked on Project SAUCER, and when I met him in 1960 he was working on Tesla coils at Universal Scientific at Vincennes, Indiana. Five years later I was also working at Universal Scientific, myself, but Blevins had moved on and I never saw him again. 

The Fred Johnson compass needle case wasn't the first.

Feb. 1944; Bass Strait, Australia
At 2:30 a.m. A bomber crew at 4,500 feet altitude saw a dark shape pull alongside the plane and pace it at a distance of about 100 feet for about 18-20 minutes. A flickering light was visible at its trailing end, which illuminated the rear portion of the object. While the object was alongside all radio and direction-finding instruments on the plane malfunctioned. Finally the object accelerated and sped away.

But later on I began working on such things and met a man by the name of Eric Herr. He was working with a team of scientists in San Diego, studying UFOs that exhibited these E-M effects on compass needles. Before he passed away more recently he had collected 147 such incidents. I found four more so we now have 151 compass needle cases.

In 1964 the NICAP UFO EVIDENCE (which went out to every member of congress)  listed 106 instances where UFOs apparently produced "electromagnetic effects". E-M Effects are those which disrupt electrical circuits, cause engine failure in automobiles, produce radio interference, etc.

In 1981, Mark Rodeghier completed his catalog for the Center for UFO Studies. "
UFO Reports Involving Vehicle Interference" is an examination, chiefly through statistical means, of the subclass of UFO events wherein the car, truck, or other motor vehicle in which a witness was either riding or in near proximity to, was seemingly affected by the presence of a UFO. It includes a full catalog of 441 cases.

Dr, Richard Haines' catalog of over 3,000 Selected Sightings From Aircraft includes 185 E-M cases.
By now, it was obvious that high-frequency electromagnetic radiation was an excellent candidate for the cause of UFO interference with cars, aircraft, etc. One of my first questions was why UFOs stop cars and not airplanes? Or why diesal tractors were not affected? The answers would come later. 

So, concentrating my research to a category, the "detection" project was designed to demonstrate that UFOs were not only witnessed by reliable observers, but also by electronic devices which could not hallucinate. The purpose of the project was two-fold:

1) To act as an early warning system for the presence of magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies and early visual anomalistic target acquisition. Data would be acquired by automatic & manually-operated devices. The experiment would allow trained personnel to possibly observe a UFO and conduct scientific experiments during an event. 
2) The data, was to be incorporated into a regional computer database, would provide possible correlations with visual (and hopefully radar) sightings on a regional level.

It must be made clear that once the "sensor" is isolated from all other natural or man-made E-M sources, the very small reading one is left with is simply the Earth's own magnetic field. What we are then looking for is something distorting that field. Since the Earth's magnetic field doesn't vary more than 5 per cent from its static average, the "background" is perfect. "The classic magnet variometer is a mechanical sensor...besides tending to be simple in construction and operation, mechanical sensors offer a bonus that helps improve the signal-to-noise ratio. They tend to be unresponsive to high frequency fields, which is good. The resolution is typically 0.1 gamma.

Jim McCampbell pointed out in his study, that, within a variety of contexts, the emanation of microwave energy from UFOs has been adduced. Electromagnetic energy in the range of about 300 to 3,000 MHz, or higher, seemed to be responsible for most of the effects reported.

So, by 1970 I had stopped long enough in my investigation work with my NICAP team to actually build a UFO detector using a magnet variometer for the sensor. At the time I thought it was the extreme sensitivity of the sensor that caused the first three anomalies, but looking back to those UFO-ridden days, this probably was not the case at all. Something apparently was going on.

The first interesting incident that I investigated that year involved three witnesses.  It was August 30th, 1970 and occurred east of Vincennes, Indiana in a housing subdivision at about 11:00 AM. The family
was in the process of packing for a trip. The man was interrupted by his daughter (age 7) who saw a metallic disc in the ENE hovering over Wheatland Road and reported it to her parents. He then went outside and saw the object, as well and ran into the house to get his 7x50 binoculars. When he emerged, the object was much closer. It was now about a quarter of a mile away, described as "a garbage can lid with a piece of watermelon on top" and about 30' in diameter. This man told us that "somebody else should have seen it, it was so low." Observed for a minute and a half, the object left in a swooping dive to the NNE.

A week later I started picking up anomalies. I didn't put two and two together, this was just not a good correlation. Looking back, if this would happen today, it would be a totally different situation. Here is what happened:
Anomaly No. 1, September 8, 1970:  The UFO detector picked up something at 4:45 in the afternoon.  No visual sighting was reported. 
Anomaly No. 2, September 22, 1970:  Again, the detector indicated a disturbance in the local magnetic field.  This time, it was at about 12:30 PM.  Again, there were no reports of a visual sighting.
Notice the time of day. Anomalies detected twice in the afternoon, preceded by a good daylight disc encounter with three observers. And the little 7-year-old girls wasn't just a very young witness, she's the one that saw a flying saucer with a dome BEFORE her parents saw it.

But it wasn't over. There was yet another anomaly

Anomaly No. 3, October 2, 1970:  At 9:55 PM the detector, again, indicated a disturbance but no one reported any sightings.

I wasn't impressed at the time. I was hoping/looking for immediate cause and effect relationships. With 20/20 hindsight and many lean UFO years to back it up, I can now see that this probably was an indicator that some genuine UFO operation was going on in my area. The detector was an alarm system only with no way of recording data other than time and the sensitivity of the device was an unknown. I had three company transfers in 1971-1972-1973 and the detector was not in operation again until 1973.

By 1973 I was firmly anchored by my last company transfer to Mt. Vernon, Indiana where I remained for over 40 years.

Now, here's a good example of a UFO operation, this time a HUGE operation on a world-wide scale. By 1973 the detection system was much more sophisticated and was designated MADAR, which stands for Multiple Anomaly Detection & Automatic Recording. 

1973 was the year of a massive world-wide UFO sighting wave involving many humanoid reports. It started late in the fall, very heavy in the United States BTW, peaking in late October and early November. But things were stirring even before the wave struck..

On Sept. 20, 1973 Skylab III was in orbit over Indian Ocean. During revolution # 1863. Astronauts Alan Bean, Owen Garriott and Jack Lousma observed for 10 minutes what they described as a red "satellite", which they photographed (4 color photos) and mentioned during a subsequent debriefing. The object looked like an upside-down spider, was 800' in diameter, and 25-30 miles from Skylab. We have radio conversation (transcript only) with Houston CapCom about 4.5 hours after the sighting of this object.

1973 was a  very troubled time in the world. On Oct. 6 a very dangerous war broke out in the Middle East, the Arab-Israeli (Yom Kippur War) By Oct. 25th, the U.S. became concerned that the Soviet Union might intervene in the war, and U.S. forces including Strategic Air Command, Continental Air Defense Command, European Command and the Sixth Fleet were placed on DEFCON III Alert. 

Major UFO sightings were taking place and the UFO hotline was ringing off the wall for months.
Oct 11 Pascagoula, MS Charles Hixson/Calvin Parker abduction
Oct 18, Mt. Vernon, IN A large cigar-shaped craft with lights all over it flew low over the FAA VORTAC on Ford Road. This was preceded minutes earlier by the famous Mansfield, Ohio/Captain Coyne helicopter, domed-cigar case. Coyne and his crew noticed that the magnetic compass was rotating slowly, while the Radio Magnetic Indicator was functioning normally. To make it even more interesting,  near Rosewood, Ohio, American Airlines Flight 21, a Boeing 747 at 33,000' encountered apparently the same UFO witnessed by Capt. Coyne. Two days later, on October 20th, at 6:50 AM,  a UFO apparently disabled a Burlington engine on an L&N  train between Mt. Vernon & Evansville, Indiana.

Now if you look at a graph of the sightings for the midwest one can see another eye-opener. With 365 days in a year what are the chances MADAR would pick up an anomaly right after the the peak?

MADAR had been running all this time but had picked up nothing all year. Then all of a sudden, BAM!
On Nov. 1st, Mt. Vernon, IN. Anomaly #4:  At 9:47 PM MADAR was triggered.   Radiation was a normal reading of 18 cps, but something had tripped the sensor.
But less than an hour later, at 10:40 PM, there was a close encounter at Bufkin, Indiana, a few miles NE of Mt. Vernon. A blue and green light which moved up and down and back and forth was reported and was close enough for a humming noise to be heard.

The next evening there were two more local sightings. At
l0:20 PM two warehouse men at Mt. Vernon Milling Co. saw an object six blocks away and 60-80 feet in the air. It was observed for only about 15 seconds was an orange-colored wedge shaped. object. Seventeen minutes later, Police Chief Wilfred Clerk and Officer John Tucker were on a pursuit of a drunken driver in Point Township. The driver had gone off the road and into a ditch. Waiting for a wrecker, the officers observed an object in the southwest that approached them, then stopped. It was a strange-looking object which we now refer to as an "OBOL" (Orange Ball Of Light) and their spotlight placed on it caused the light to get brighter and closer. After about a minute and a half, they put the squad car spotlight on it again and it immediately moved away and out of sight.

So, big things WERE happening all over the world. I wrote a paper, "MADAR 4 and the Ford Rd./VORTAC  and  Other Incidents During the Wave of 1973", plus I produced the 35-page "1973 UFO Chonology: A World-Wide Wave".

1974 was not as spectacular but had some anomalies.
Anomaly No. 5, May 24, 1974
This, yet unexplained incident, was never correlated with any sightings of UFOs anywhere, local or regional. But it was one of those incidents that occurred in the wee hours (2:42 AM) that will forever cause wonder.  
Anomaly No. 6, August 15, 1974
MADAR was triggered at 12:19 AM. One of the MADAR recorders almost immediately picked up a clap of thunder. A very close lightning strike caused the deviation.
Anomaly No. 7, September 3, 1974
At 9:35 PM.There were no close sightings that were reported; however, a MADAR was triggered and the event data recorder showed background radiation levels rose to 86% above normal.

1975 and 1976 were not banner years, but MADAR was still running, although the log books had little to dwell on. Database studies by Chris Rutkowski, Mark Rodeghier, & Mike Swords all showed sightings mostly down but Close Encounters DEFINITELY down. Later, in 1992, when I was writing my book, "Regional Encounters: The FC Files", my GDR Database to backup the MADAR data showed the same thing. UFOs in the form of close encounters looked as if they had gone covert.
Anomaly No. 8, March 26, 1976
In 1976 we recorded only one MADAR event. It occurred  at 8:45 AM, one of the few times MADAR was triggered in daylight hours. Background radiation readings were normal and nobody filed a UFO report. However, the next day at 5:05 PM I was a witness to something I couldn't explain. It was oblong, looked like a jet airliner without wings, and was cruising to the NW at high speed. The object was within sight for 25 seconds and was pretty high up. I don't know how it attracted my attention as I made the bank deposit, but  I saw it. Maybe it was a distant jet. I'll never know.

Bear with me while I set the stage for MADAR-15.

Jimmie Carter was President, had seen (what he had thought was ) a UFO in 1973, and in 1977 had asked NASA to check into UFOs.

On Oct. 7, 1977, nine disc-shaped UFOs circled a Soviet Navy submarine tender. The radio, electronics, and on-board communications were all disrupted.

Sometime in December, near Novy Georgy Island, in Russian territorial waters the crew of the fishing trawler Vasily Kiselev observed something very unusual. Rising vertically from under the water was a doughnut-shaped object. Its diameter was between 300 and 500 meters. It hovered about four to five kilometers up. The trawler's radar station was immediately rendered inoperative. The object hovered over the area for three hours, and then disappeared instantly.

All during 1977 Steven Spielberg had been finalizing a major motion picture. It simply has to be noted that on Nov. 16, 1977, "Close Encounters of the Third Kind" was released at theaters. I attended the premier of this motion picture with the news media. Debunkers and skeptics predicted the movie would precipitate many sightings AFTER its showing and on into 1978, but this never happened. And this movie cannot be blamed for the events prior to its release. So, was someone trying to tell us something? Wait until you see what happened in July.

July 10, 1977 - MADAR Event #9
On July 10th at 1:04 AM, the DAS siren was going off. I jumped out of bed and headed for the control room downstairs where the equipment was set up, and turned off the audio alarm switch. While the rest of the county slept, MADAR was recording a 17-pulse disturbance in the local magnetic field. The anomaly lasted 55 seconds. This was the longest disturbance on record at the station at that time and the fluctuations were the most erratic recorded so far by MADAR's event recorder. Background radiation was a normal 16 counts per minute. I had looked outside to see if there was anything in sight, in all directions, but there was nothing unusual, at least near the facility. MADAR was still recording at that time. About an hour later when the tapes ran out I was confident that the event had ended and I reset the sensor, extracted the data tapes from the recorders, labeled them and replaced them with new ones. There were no incoming calls to the UFO Filter Center hotline. I contacted the police department and spoke with Officer Kermit Steele. He hadn't heard anything, either. I then went back to bed.

For days I pondered over what had happened, a little dismayed that I couldn't get what I'd hoped for, for years: an instant correlation between detections and local sightings. This would be a documented cause-and-effect relationship, more proof that UFOs couldn't all be IFOs, and also verify that I had a good "early warning system". I wanted to be able to grab a camera and run with it, getting a picture to go with the other data. Or, have an independent witness.

MADAR Event # 10
Two days later it happened again. On July 12th, at 1:48 AM, I jumped out of bed with greater expectations. When it was all over I went over the tapes. On the sensor data tape there was no reading of the pulse. The first pulse (I call this the "phantom pulse") is the one that turns on the system, therefore it is not recorded. However, the "pulse" is not actually a quick & short disturbance. When the sensor is pulled from north it may take many seconds to minutes to return to normal, indicating the disturbance is not a random event. This was a one-pulse disturbance, however, with no slow "return", indicating the cause was at the limit of the sensor's range. The variometer must have moved just enough to allow enough light to strike the photo cell, then back to normal. The background radiation reading was 18 cpm, still normal for the area. No calls. No visual sightings from our facility. The police department was alerted, but had heard nothing from callers or officers in cruisers.
MADAR Event #11
A little over two hours later, at 4:35 AM, I was awakened again by the siren, indicating another anomaly was occurring. Two hours and 47 minutes had elapsed and MADAR had recorded another event. This time it was a 5-pulse, 53-second disturbance. Radiation was a normal 16 cpm. I did everything I had trained myself to do in such an event, then once again stumbled back to bed. It wasn't over. And I don't know why, but this time I didn't record the time. I should have, because sometime within an hour, the facility's smoke alarm started beeping. Not screaming, but beeping. There was no smoke or noticeable fumes. The beeping signal indicated that the smoke alarm was not getting enough power, telling me the batteries were low. Later, the batteries were checked and in perfect order and not replaced until six months later! Something had caused the voltage to drop for a very short time. Whatever had caused it was an anomaly in itself, because there was nothing wrong with the unit or the batteries.
MADAR Event #12
Three days later, on July 15th, this time at 10:06 PM, MADAR logged another event. This was a 4-pulse, 4-second disturbance, radiation 13 cpm. Again, it seemed as if it was all a waste of time. There were no UFO reports.

A few days later, on a routine visit to the Mt. Vernon Police Department as part of my local PR work, the dispatcher, Officer Kermit Steele, had advised me that they had picked up transmissions on the police radio from two locations. This had happened RIGHT AFTER I had called him on the 12th! At approximately 2:10 AM, citizens had been reporting UFOs to police at Mt. Vernon, ILLINOIS, 60 miles to the northwest of us! Also, reports were coming in from Mayfield, Kentucky, 85 miles to the southwest! Too much to be a coincidence.

That evening a report came in over the KNI Net (police scanner frequency). Somebody had phoned in a report to the Kentucky State Police at Hancock County. They thought they had seen an aircraft "going down".  I immediately contacted the Control Tower at Dress-Regional Airport. No aircraft was ever reported missing or crashed. This was either a meteor or, a UFO. We'll never know. But things were starting to look very odd. Coincidences were getting less likely. And the best was yet to come.

MADAR Event #13
This was now July 26th. This was in the wee hours again, at 2:20 AM, a one-pulse disturbance, with radiation a normal 16 cpm. I was now getting enough sleep. The events were getting farther apart.

On July 31st, Normal, Illinois, had a daylight sighting of interest. At 6:30 PM, a university art professor called his wife and secretary to see the silver "stretched cigar", three times the size of the moon in length. It was observed for three minutes as it flew in a slow straight path from southwest to northeast, with no trail, no wings, no details, no sounds. The apparent size and duration should impress even an ardent skeptic. Good UFO reports were coming in and MADAR was working. We just needed a local correlation by a credible observer.

MADAR Event #14
August 1st at 10:11 PM. It was a 4-pulse, 4-second disturbance with a 16 cpm reading. It was starting to get boring again.

Then the big one. But we didn't know just HOW big until 2010! The implications of MADAR 15 are still reverberating.

MADAR Event  #15
The final one for the year, was logged on August 15th at 10:14 PM. It was an 18-pulse, 3-minute and 29-second disturbance. MADAR had logged the best and longest disturbance so far. And the background radiation reading was 30 cpm, a 100% increase! For the record, in 1977 this was a significant reading!

Later that morning, 310 miles away to the NE at Delaware, Ohio:

Jerry Ehman,  while working on a SETI project at the Big Ear Telescope of Ohio State University, was startled to see something on the printout. The signal bore expected hallmarks of potential non-terrestrial and non-solar-system origin. It lasted for the full 72 second duration that Big Ear observed it, but has not been detected again. Amazed at how closely the signal matched the expected signature of an interstellar signal in the antenna used, Ehman circled the signal on the computer printout and wrote the comment "Wow!" on its side. This comment became the name of the signal. (See NCP-19, a comprehensive report on that incident).

The "WOW" Signal occurred at the same time MADAR-15 was detecting a disturbance in the Earth's magnetic field and background gamma ray radiation doubled. All these signals are from different sources and areas of the spectrum and over 310 miles apart!

At this point in time the graphs of close encounters began to change dramatically. C
lose encounters for all practical purposes had dropped off the charts. Had the UFO phenomena gone more covert? Distant encounters of Nocturnal Lights or Daylight Discs continued on. MADAR continued to detect anomalies but nothing was being reported in the skies.

It is MY OPINION that when man's ability to document and film the phenomena became easy and relatively inexpensive, the surveillance level or means to do so had to be changed. Graphs of the decline in CE reports and the surge in camera (video and still) use bear this out.  


Six years later, the intervening silence indicative of a real lull period. Nothing had been changed. MADAR was running 24/7 and just waiting for the next event.
June 27, 1983 - MADAR Event #16
At 2:22 AM, the alarm sounded. By this time I had changed the audeo alert signal from a heart-stopping siren to a gentler sonalert beeper. The radiation background was 16 cpm, normal again.

Three days later (June 30th) Cathy Davis, the subject of the book & TV movie, "Intruders", was allegedly abducted near Indianapolis. Be advised, Indy is halfway up the state from our near Evansville MADAR site, hundreds of miles away, and hopelessly out of range of MADAR's sensor.

MADAR Event #17
Then, on July the 5th, it happened again, fifteen minutes after midnight! No increase in background radiation.

It is a fact that a major abduction incident took place between two MADAR events. Could some type of UFO operation, regionally wide in scope, be happening at the same time? This was the first indication of the "rain gauge effect" I began to notice. UFO sightings were probably not just random events. But I never noticed this when it was occurring, only when I began to look at the data in preparation for my book release.


MADAR Event #18
Feb 12, 1984. 10:51 PM. During the next two days there were 10 local earthquakes, 8 on the 13th and two on the 14th ranging from 2.7 to 4.0. This would have caused some geomagnetic disturbance and was probably related.

MADAR Event #19
July 23, 4:19 AM. A one-pulse disturbance. No UFO reports.


MADAR Event #20
May 30, 1989. 10:39 PM one pulse, 1 sec. No UFO reports.

MADAR Event #21
Also on May 30th, but thirty five minutes later at 11:14 PM. A  3- pulse 3- sec disturbance was recorded.

Really strange!
MADAR Anomaly No 22
December 15th, 1989; 6:03 PM. This event occurred with a momentary power outage, so brief that there was no loss of stored information. It was merely a flicker of lights and power, but the magnet variometer deviated from north, cycled back in 18-seconds, then deviated again in the opposite direction (2-pulse, 18- second on first pulse, no return on second), resting away from north indefinitely! The sensor housing had to be physically rotated to get it back to north! Channel 14 TV  at Evansville, just 20 miles east of us, lost all their computer graphics. It was thought that this was related to earthquake phenomenon, but there was no reported quake.
MADAR Anomaly No 23
December 17, 1989; 9:14 AM. This time there was no additional pulse (besides the "phantom" or unrecorded initial pulse) to show a swing back to and past north. This was a "no return" situation, again. This had never happened before, at least at this station in the 20-years we have been in operation.
MADAR Anomaly No 24
December 22nd, 1989; 10:49 PM. One pulse. Again, no return to North! I can't explain this.
There were two other events in 1990, but not included in the report since they were accidental actuations.

MADAR shut down in 1990

MADAR-II went into service
February 19th, 2014 at 3:30 p.m

Anomaly No. 27
June 6, 2014, Mt. Vernon, IN; 7:25 PM, indeterminate pulse, 2 min 11 sec durat, rad 12-15 cpm. No sightings local.

Massive RF/EM disturbance of undetermined origin that lasted 2 minutes and 11 seconds. Nineteen minutes into the event there was marked interference on aircraft and police frequency carriers in the 108-200 MHz range. At 19:42:22 Quad Time there was marked interference in the carrier frequencies at the same time as jerky deviations with the DCS-800 fluxgate compass were noted on the VHS recording. WWV is monitored at 10.0 MHz. A time fix for the latter event was established as 19:44:19 as 0h47m CUT. The entire MADAR-27 event began with automatic activation of the MADAR system.  

Anomaly No. 28
April 13, 2015; 3:41 PM, 3-4 pulse, 1.8 sec durat, RAD 12-15 cpm
No sightings

Anomaly No. 29
April 13, 2015; 8:09:20 PM, 2 pulse, 1 sec durat, 12-15 cpm
No sightings

Anomaly No. 30
July 15, 2015; 3:46 PM,1 pulse, 2 min 11 sec durat, rad 12-15
Truck struck power pole, outage.

In August of 2016, while preparing for a move to Newburgh, Indiana, MADAR-II was dismantled and transferred to Louisville, Kentucky to be operated by MADAR Tech Support Challon Holt. Work immediately began on a totally new system to be sold to and operated by interested ufolologists all over the world. MADAR-III details to be announced.

Mailing Address:
Francis Ridge
618 Davis Drive
Mt. Vernon, IN  47620


(812) 838-3120