PROJECT  MATCH  REPORT

FOUR-YEAR REPORT
2018-2021

Potential Sightings of Interest & MADAR Anomalies

There were a number of interesting sightings that either had distant connections or had no obvious correlations in time to be used in this report. There were cases that were not used because certain data couldn't be confirmed. So this is an effort to show a potential correlation between sightings that we feel are more representative of the phenomena and bonified MADAR anomalies, most of the time using Multi-Sensor Verification.  Data for the last two months is pending so this report is dated so that any further additions can be noted and is subject to update.

1 Jan 2022
If you would have constructed a UFO detector and had it running one evening, and woke up to see, on the news, that a flying saucer (not just an orb) had landed on a highway 3 hours later and a hundred and twenty miles away, you would have jumped for joy!  Not that your gadget had picked it up, but it had shown that there was some form of active UFO situation in the region. It was a good way to start a year, I thought, but it left much to be desired. That plus the fact the witness would not file a written report. That was July of 2018. Two months prior to that an object with anomalistic motion was observed the exact same minute a MADAR had picked up a target 19 miles away. A few days later the report that was filed showed the time (without any explanation) had changed from a documented and exact time of 9:58 pm to 11:22 pm, an hour and a 24 minutes later! But I knew it had to get better.

The original MADAR was a magnet variometer, basically a modified compass with a vertical light beam and photocell relay system. It worked because we had 150 plus incidents on record where UFOs caused deviations in the local geomagnetic field. But there was only one MADAR. What was needed was a miniature version, affordable, so that hundreds could be placed around the globe. In April of 2016 I came up with an idea that I was sure would work.

By February of 2017 I had a full team of electronics experts working on it, and by the end of the year we had 20 MADAR sites, but the software needed more work.

With improved software we went operational in May of 2018.  We had been using a compound sensor chip that had to be soldered into the controller, and one of its sensors was a magnetometer. We had been using all three axes on the magnetometer and there were alternating positive and negative numbers coming off of it, so the tech support team had to make use of them with an algorithm to compute the numbers which were whole numbers that in no way gave an accurate reading in milligaus. The onboard compass worked but was too erratic to be used as the primary detector. The barometer also worked and we had hoped it would provide extra data during a UFO event. Later when I ordered an update on the software we were able to obtain better readings to two decimal places on all three sensors. We were already using the spreadsheet to study the data, but it had some work that needed to be done on it. But Ops were getting email notifications of their alerts.  At year's end we had picked up 17 sites and were now running 37.

We were having issues with the Chinese computer chip, and even the Honeywell version, so by February of 2019 our new sensor board was ready to manufacture. This I-board, which is the heart of the new MADAR-III-B DataProbe, had an improved magnetometer, and other new features, including a set of screw down terminals for use with an ADT panel.  In May we announced the DAS, (Delayed Alarm Signal) a small alarm box to alert the operators so that they could go out and look, take photos, videos and other hand-held data. Thanks to this addition to MADAR we were able to get our first UFO "signature" in April of 2020. During the year we recalled all the older units and upgraded them to the new I-board. I had set a target date of April 1st to upgrade the system and get the new software running so we could begin our second year of being operational with an improved capability. By May it was ready. By the end of the year we had picked up 40 more sites which added up to 77 MADAR facilities.

Almost every member of my tech support teams at one point had asked me, "How do we know this will work?" I would always take them back to the original white paper. I didn't know how long it would be before we got that evidence. By late fall we had another white paper feature up and running, the cell phone SMS (Short Message Service). Not as fast as the DAS alerting the Ops, but soon turned into a valuable tool. We didn't recognize it at the time, but as early as September of 2019 the SMS helped an Op track a UFO at Fishers, Indiana. Bear with me.

In 2020, right after we had our first real UFO "signature" at Millerton, Pennsylvania, we were alerted by Robert Spearing about Operation Foal Eagle. We believe what happened in South Korea in 2003 explains what we are dealing with.  We had four interesting events in 2020. We also added 29 additional sites and now had 106 running.

During the spring of 2021 we updated the software, dumped the barometer, and began using the onboard accelerometer that we already had built-in the new board and at no extra cost to Ops. By now we knew we were ontrack with four new incidents, one of them a blockbuster at Indianapolis on September 6th. We added 40 more sites and by end of the year had 146 on the books.

The following events are listed annually in reverse order so that we can bring you the very latest news first.

January 10, 2021; Festus, Missouri [Rating 20-70-30-10]
9:00 am. The witness and a buddy were taking a walk in the woods near his house. His buddy sighted the silver disc craft first and they zoomed in on the object and started taking pictures (3). After hovering for about 5 minutes, the craft moved at unbelievable speed, first left, then right, then zoomed up and away as the witness described it “at a speed faster than anything they had ever seen”. Witness seems very credible and stable. MADAR node 70 at St. Louis recorded at least two anomalies, but the first was a correlation with the sighting at Festus, Missouri, within 10 minutes and 30 miles. The time of the sighting was called in as 9:00 am but the MADAR hit was a documented anomaly, UTC-dated as 15:10:47 or 9:11 CST. The data from the compass heading change exceeded the 3-degree plus protocols, so this event appears to be an MSV (multi sensor verification). This potential sighting of interest was investigated by MUFON and was given the conclusion of "Unknown UAV", closed, and approved. (CMS 113331, Larry Tyree).  

January 17, 2021; Lee's Summitt, Missouri [50-88-12-21m]
1:18 pm CDT. According to the witness the object was about the length of a football field, black, but angular features, almost stealth like. Described as being similar to a tall building on its side, with each level flat on the bottom and coming to a tip near the 'front'. The UFO was seen about 300 feet above the ground and 1.68 miles away. Witness was driving westbound. By the time he got to the intersection at Lees Summit Drive and NW Vellie Rd, it had dropped to about 100 feet (just above tree line) and was about 1.2 miles. The movement of the UFO was a perfect motion, still, no shift in the wind, just a slow decent and looked like it was going to land. "Maybe it was just trying to hide?....I can't stop thinking about what I've seen. I've never seen anything like it and can only be described as a UFO". 
The witness was previously in the Air Force, is now a scientist, has a PhD and works in Toxicology. The craft was described as traveling 1.56 miles in about 2 minutes, or 47 mph. When the witness tried to record a video, it did not work. (MUFON CMS 114238, Larry Tyree).  Twelve miles to the north, MADAR node 45 at Independence, Missouri had an anomaly at 19:39:08 UTC, which converts to 1:39 CST, 21 minutes after the sighting at Lee's Summit began. Field readings were unusually high (69.75 to 105.75 milligaus) and there was multi-sensor verification with the onboard compass from 237.11 to 240.31 within 4 seconds of trigger. Node 45 had another alert 8 minutes later. [The report mentions that node 45 at Independence triggered 21 minutes later. It just so happens that the trajectory taken by the craft goes within 1,650 feet of this MADAR site!! At a rate of 47 mph, if it did not slow down, it would have arrived close to node 45, 13 minutes later (or 1:31). So, I think that is pretty close. Not only the direction is virtually precise from the witness's last sighting, but the speed of travel allows for it to arrive nearly at the time that the Independence node was triggered. (Larry Tyree).

September 6, 2021; Indianapolis, Indiana [30-99-01-00]
MADAR node 21 at Indianapolis recorded an anomaly at 6:26 AM. Field reading 32.25 milligaus, 2.25 over threshold. 23 seconds later compass heading exceeded the multi-sensor verification (3 degree) range by going from 90.64 to 101.36 at 10:25:29. Op put out an APB using facebook requesting anyone seeing anything unusual that morning and received a response from an observer who had spotted an unknown object at 6:25 am. Witness was a retired Marion County and State Capitol Police officer, and at the time of the sighting, an Uber driver. Report as follows. Beach Grove/Indianapolis, retired police officer, Jeff Hall, was sitting at the corner of Thompson Road and Emerson Avenue in the old Kmart parking lot. He was in his car facing West when he looked up and saw a black cigar-shaped craft with 7 round white lights on the trailing edge of the object, which was silent. He estimated the craft was 1800-2000 feet high, similar to low flying helicopters. From witness's vantage point inside his vehicle, he estimated the object to be around 1/2 mile (2640 feet) away. When looking at it with his arm outstretched, eye to thumb tip of around 25-30 inches, he noted it was 45 degree angle up and about the size of 3-4 of his thumbnails which is approximately 3-3-1/2 inches. This indicates a large craft estimated to be about 300 feet wide which would make the 7 lights on trailing edge about 15 feet across. Object moved from NE to SW and disappeared out of sight as he drove off to pick up a customer. He stated he had seen this exact same craft in August 2021 about 8-10 miles West of this location near his home. Witness had seen no other aircraft in area during the sighting. A FR24 (radar) loop showed no aircraft in area. (Terry Tolle)

2020

April 23, 2020; Millerton, Pennsylvania           [20-99.75-0.25-00]
9:59 local. The primary witness and another op were in the radio room where the MADAR DataProbe 104 is located when the alarm sounded. The operator immediately went outside while the younger man stayed behind, attempting to reset the alarm. The op immediately noticed to his left, and over a barn to the northwest, a light reddish-yellow object, generally spherical, but fuzzy, possibly due to clear but low mist condition. The area is described as rural. "As for distance and height you would have to see the sighting location. It flew between us and a 50 foot silo, that is across from where we stood." Temperature was 29-degrees F. The actual alert lasted 186 seconds but the sighting took place over a ten minute period.. The size of the object was estimated at about 20' in diameter and the altitude at about 50', range less than a quarter mile. While there was no obvious sound from the object, "all the dogs down the alley were barking". Witnesses attempted to photograph the object, but due to lack of sufficient light or a camera malfunction was not able to do so. Object traveled slowly, less than 10 mph, in a straight line to the northwest approximately on a 330 degree heading and faded away into the mist. (Investigated by MUFON). The object was less than a quarter mile away and the compass had swung almost 3 degrees, from 122.62 to 125.82. The magnetometer's field reading went from 10.5 to 20.25 milligaus and back to 3.0 in about 6 seconds, all of which occurred before the witness got outside. If site 104's threshold shield had been set higher than 20 (which most MADARs are), no anomaly would have been detected.

August 29, 2020; Payson, Illinois      [10-??-??-00]
6:30 pm local. The op and his wife were sitting in the backyard enjoying the sunset looking due west. Clear conditions, sun at the horizon, no haze, light northern breeze. Just a few degrees south of the sun, which was sitting on the horizon and at about 30 degrees angle above the horizon, they saw a dim "star" appear. It remained stationary throughout the entire sighting that lasted about 5 minutes. It slowly got brighter until it gleamed like the sun reflecting on a jetliner fuselage, brighter than any star. The moon was behind a cloud bank behind them and to the south. The light dimmed slowly back to very faint, then it ramped up again to the metallic bright gleam for a few moments, and then faded slowly until it was barely visible. The op looked at the Star Chart on his cell phone to confirm the name of the star in that location, and when he looked for the light again, it was nowhere to be seen and did not reappear. (Report filed with MUFON). Node 97 was not DAS-equipped (about 25% of the madars have an alarm box). Later, while checking his email he found that the MADAR site had an alert while this was going on. He had the MADAR app on his phone but did not think to check it at the time. At the time of this sighting the MADAR unit  recorded the following alert: "A magnetic anomaly has occurred on node: 97 Mag: 186.00, Compass: 84.88, Pressure: 29.12, Time: 2020-8-29, 23:29:33 GMT". The op filed a report with MUFON.  MADAR log during the alert shows an MSV (multiple sensor verification) in compass heading from 82.19 degrees to 85.98 degrees, and the field reading was pretty high, 186 milligaus from 1.12 with a threshold of 23. Not knowing the distance from the observers makes it impossible to rate that part of the event.

October 11, 2020; Millerton, Pennsylvania   [60-99-01-00]
5:58 am. MADAR Ops at node 104 responded to an alert. There was heavy cloud cover and the witnesses thought the object they were seeing above the clouds was the moon. Later, the main node op realized that the moon would have been on the other side of the facility. On Oct. 26, a MUFON field investigator conducted the investigation. At 5:53 am, 5 minutes prior to the sighting time, the weather at Elmira Corning Regional Airport, 12 miles to the N, was reported as temperature 56°, winds from the NNE at 12 mph, overcast cloud ceiling at 3,000 feet, and visibility of at least 10 miles.
MUFON Case: 111,788, Cat: 1 Case Disposition: Unknown – UAV Object Identification (If Applicable): Unknown. The Stellarium computer program was used to obtain the moon's celestial coords for the date in question and confirmed that the moon was located where the observers had confirmed it to be and not where the anomalous object/light was observed. The initial alert from the witness’s at site 104 registered at 10-11-20 09:58:06 UTC (5:58 AM local time). The alert ended at 10-11-20 09:58:13 UTC (7 seconds later). MADAR Node 82, located in Pine City, NY, 5 miles NE of Millerton, PA, had normal readings at the time of the alert, but at 10-11-20 10:03:18 UTC (5 minutes after the alert in Millerton) had a field reading spike of 11.62 milligaus. This is higher than the normal readings for that node, which normally run in the low single digits, but below the threshold of the alert level, which is set at 25 milligauss. An alert, therefore, was not triggered on the Pine City node, and did not register as such on the MADAR online data page. If there was an object that triggered the alert in Millerton, PA, and that object was traveling NE at 60 mph, it would have reached Pine City in 5 minutes, and could have been the cause of the magnetic spike registered on MADAR Node 82.  MADAR Operations Center confirmed the spike at Pine City of 11.62 milligaus at 6:03 am, and  at significant change in the compass headings, MSV protocols being 3 degrees or more. The field readings from node 104 at Millerton, Pennsylvania at 5:58 am had been high enough to trigger the device and was no doubt a response to an unknown object nearby or even possibly right over the Millerton site.

BORDERLINE INCIDENTS

December 8, 2020; Fishers, Indiana
At 23:56 or 11:56 pm witness heard a slight hum and looked up to see a huge triangular "airplane" with a light at the front, one in the middle and three in the rear. Six hours later at 6:18 am (now December 9) at Oaklandon, Indiana, just 8 miles to the SE, MADAR site 87 picked up an anomaly that met multi-sensor protocols. Nine hours later, at Greenfield, Indiana (12 mi SE of Oaklandon and 18 miles SE of Fishers) and 3:00 pm. a witness was driving home heading eastbound and looked to the northeast and saw bright lights. The object had 5 really bright rectangular-shaped lights across the front and was the size of a football field or larger, hovering over a barn on 200 North in Greenfield. The observer then turned to the south and lost it to view, but could still see a shadow behind it. After getting home he went to a spot in town and by this time he was one mile south but directly across from where he had seen the object before. At that point he said it had come back into view again. This time it looked like it changed shape because then he saw what looked like dark glass vertical windows. It then just faded into the sky. (MUFON CMS)
 

2019

September 28, 2019; Fishers, Indiana      [20-100-00-00]
10:22 pm. Node 84 had gone online earlier that month and was undergoing some adjustments with the aid of the MADAR Operations Center at Newburgh, Indiana. The MADAR Op at 84, acting in a professional and scientific manner, was being cautious and had been getting some suspicious MADAR "hits".  MOC had suggested a change in the shield or threshold setting in order to limit false alarms but yet allow the device to be the most sensitive to field changes. At the time of this incident the shield was set very low at 15 milligaus, about half of the now normal settings. The Op was out observing with his Night Vision Generation 3 Goggles and picked up a NV target. He was unable to see it with the naked eye but with his NVG he looked up at 315 degrees on compass and was able to view a bright white non flashing light heading NW, and then curving directly west. Then the object did something a normal aircraft couldn't do. It suddenly accelerating upwards!  He had observed a few meteors this evening but this was definitely not a meteor.  Being only a Level One (without a DAS or alarm box) the Op was alerted to anomalies via CPA or Cell Phone Alert, but this turned out to be very valuable. While watching this UAP he had gotten a few more alerts. He also observed some red flashing stationary lights but they appeared to be off to the NW in the far distance.
The analysis of the data shows that an object only visible to night vision, observed during a series of MADAR alerts at the same location, went vertical at the approximate time of the the last anomaly which occurred at 10:22 pm. The field readings ranged from 2 milligaus to 18 milligaus. Hits 1,3,6 met Multi Sensor Verification protocols with 4 degrees on the first hit, 3 degrees on the second hit, and 4 degrees on the third hit. A CMS check later showed that less than three weeks prior and about 130 miles south of the MADAR site at Fishers, a similar sighting of a black object (which would have been invisible at night) was reported at Georgetown, Indiana had ascended directly upward.

BORDERLINE CORRELATION

August 23, 2019; West Hartford, Connecticut      [20-93-07-05m]
10:00 pm local. A SKYWATCH team in Connecticut was conducting routine observations and running equipment tests on older and newer skywatch systems. They were tracking a conspicuous orange twinkling orb at around 22:00 hours (10:00 pm local), 02:00 UTC. The object on the western horizon first caught the attention of one of the group, who quickly alerted the rest of the team. Another team member had the night vision camera running with a tripod-mounted 20" flat screen with the NV camera on top. At first the orb was stationary. Once the target was moving, they had to manually track it on-screen, as it slowly moved from left to right (W-N). As it moved to the right it decreased in altitude. At one point the motion was described as "fell like a leaf". They watched it until it went below the tree line and out of sight. No noise was ever heard from the object. (MUFON CMS 103581) The NV guy had gotten MADAR alerts on his SMS/cell a little over an hour before, and he obtained screen grabs of six MADAR hits at site 139 at Wallingford a little over 30 miles to the south. The screen grabs were stamped as beginning at 8:44 pm. the area of the orb at Plainville there had been a hot-air balloon festival and sometimes the participants launch japanese jackalanterns. MUFON investigators had written it off as a "jackalantern". Later on, it was discovered that the fire department had stated that all hot air balloons were on the ground by 9:00 pm, as they were getting ready for a fireworks display.This pending case was re-opened on 20 Feb 2021. During the re-investigation it was discovered that the NV target was in view for a full 30 minutes but no recordings had been made. It is extremely unlikely for a jackalantern to be visible for 30 minutes. It was confirmed that MADAR node 139 at Wallingford did have six alerts during the skywatch but not during the NV scanning period beginning about 10:00 pm and separated in time by about an hour or so. It was also discovered that Wallingford had 76 hits that day and had an extremely high average ambient of 13,084 milligaus, which disqualified that node data for that date. 106 at Newington and 151 at Manchester had no alerts but had some interesting field spikes that will be the subject of discussion for some time. If the sighting time was actually a little earlier than 10:00 pm, 151 shows spikes beginning at 9:55 pm and tapering off to 10:04, from 6 milligaus to zero in 9 minutes, suggesting the target was moving away from Manchester. 106 shows spikes that begin at 9:59 pm and end at 10:12, but show the spikes raise from 2 milligaus to 6 milligause then lower from 5 to 2 over that 13 minute period. That would suggest moving towards Newington, then away, unless applied power by the target had affected the readings. One team member asked the question: Why didn't the closest nodes go on alert or at least show field readings "under trigger"? According to Operation Foal Eagle, UAP create a burst of energy when they enter the atmosphere, but don't show anything while they "idle". This we were able to confirm at Millerton, Pennsylvania on April 23, 2020. The NV target at West Hartford was in view for 30 minutes. [For rating/evaluation purposes the distance of the target was estimated at 5-7 miles]

2018

May 11, 2018; Marysville, Washington      [20-80-20-01m]
9:58 pm. A maneuvering white point of light at high altitude was seen by witnesses going from south to north (actually more S/SW to N/NE), traveling at a speed similar to observed satellites. There were no other lights on the object. Witnesses thought it was a satellite at first except that it appeared to vary its course left and right in a snakelike manner and would "go out" and come back on later on its generally northward trajectory. It went out at about a 35 degree azimuth to the north and did not reappear. It originally appeared at about a 20 degree azimuth to the south. It did not exhibit normal aircraft lighting characteristics. The  3 minute duration eliminates any possible meteor as an explanation. (MUFON CMS 91974)  At the same time of this sighting and just 20 miles south, almost to the minute, at 10:59:27 MADAR site 100 at Mountlake Terrace picked up an anomaly. [Problem associated with this report:  A few days after these knowledgeable witnesses filed an unsolicited online report clearly documenting 9:58 pm as the sighting time, someone changed the time to 11:22 pm. To this date, no one has explained how this could happen. -MOC]

August 6, 2018; Norwich, Connecticut      [30-99-01-06m]
At 13:05 (approx) the witness saw, what appeared to be a helicopter, free-fall to hover over the trees about a quarter mile from his building less than 1000 feet up. It moved side to side as if troubled with control. He thought it was going to crash, then it turned sideways and the sun shone off it brightly. It was not a helicopter and seemed possibly bullet shaped, of bright chrome. It continued to attempt control then steadied itself for a few seconds before flying straight up above the clouds. He could still see it through a hole in the clouds and watched until it shot off to his right, traveling fast enough that he only observed it again because the sun struck the chrome once more, before it was out of view. 5 mins. (NUFORC). Six minutes later at 1:11 pm and 40 miles away to the NW, the Newington node 106 had a verified anomaly! The data in 2018 was not yet properly calibrated and the field readings were next to useless in value, except that the field increase was indicative of an actual geomagnetic change which is what triggered MADAR. The multi sensor verification protocol, which went into effect in June of 2020 was utilized recently in the case above, and showed a significant compass heading change during this event.

BORDERLINE INCIDENT

July 2, 2018; Bethlehem, Pennsylvania      [50-na-na-180m]
2:40 AM. The witness was leaving her boyfriend's house late at night to go home and was driving up a hill. Upon reaching the top of the hill she saw, down the road some distance, a huge object blocking what seemed like three lanes ("taking it all up"). Typical Hynek "escalation of hypothesis": she had thought at first that maybe it was some late night street cleaning or construction vehicle. When she got closer she then thought maybe it was a military "tank" and got scared, wondering why a "tank" was in her city. Then getting even closer she recognized the "saucer shape", with the absence of wheels which a normal road vehicle would have. It was motionless the entire time she was driving towards it, described as gray and dull metal, not shiny. She didn’t see any windows on it from the angle she was observing from. As soon as she made out what it was, she freaked out, had a panic attack and quickly left, turning away from the ufo. "I couldn't have drove past it anyway as it was blocking the whole street." She called her boyfriend several times, body shaking and driving reckless and when she finally was able to reach him she was crying and frantically trying to explain what she had just seen. She was too scared to continue going home so she ended up just going back to his house and continued explaining what she had seen, and then took him to the spot within 5 minutes of leaving, and the object was completely gone. The giant thing had just disappeared. When she observed the object, there was no one anywhere else in sight. (C.M.S. Case number - 93046) At 5:36 am, about 3 hours later and about 124 miles to the NW, the Millerton site 104 picked up an anomaly. Although the anomaly couldn't have been as a direct result of the sighting at Bethlehem, the existence of a classic and compelling, inescapably-qualifying UFO event within the region suggests a real UFO operation was in progress. At the time there was only one MADAR node in Pennsylvania. The distance factor eliminates incident from our rating system.

FINAL COMMENTS

Two things can be gleaned from all this. In four short years we have laerned that:
1)   A MADAR without some sort of alarm has considerably less chance of getting a correlation.  Most people don't report a UFO. Even with a good close encounter, 1 out of 10 might report. The Fishers, Indiana node had a cell phone with SMS. The Millerton node had a DAS which alerted the Ops. Only 25% of the units are DAS-equipped. And if the Op doesn't go outside, chances are much slimmer, but there is always hope that somebody, patrolling law enforcement officers, etc. might radio something that gets logged on the blotter.
2)   A MADAR with a higher threshold has less chance of triggering. Most MADARs have thresholds of around 30 milligaus. That's why we try so hard to get the numbers down, but if Ops don't respond, have too many false alarms, and their TH numbers get raised even higher, there's not much we can do?  The Fishers, Indiana TH was being adjusted at the time and varied between 15 and 18 milligaus. The Millerton, Pennsylvania node was set at 20. The Payson, Illinois node was running at 23. Node 70 at St. Louis picked up the Festes, Missouri object and the TH was set at 26. Even the Indianapolis node TH was set at 30 BUT the object was a huge cigar less than a half-mile away! 
3)   Operation Foal Eagle
(see all our great papers) told us what we should have already known. We have plenty of documenation for vertical ascents and descents, obviously involving applied power. What we learned, however, was that when the objects entered the atmosphere and idled down, MADAR and all other sorts of electronics would show very little on readouts. The learning phase has just begun.

We have been very successful, but how many node Ops would say their nodes have been? We want all Ops to eventually have had at least one good correlation to justify their expense and participation. One thing we can do is increase the number of MADARs with DAS alarms. To that end we are introducing a USB-powered DAS-IIu for under $16. Other than that, Ops need to work on low-TH locations just as we have preached for 4 years. Inches can make a huge difference.

Fran Ridge
MADAR OPERATIONS CENTER
skyking42@gmx.com
https://www.amazon.com/CAP POINT