INFORMATION SERIES                                 

Operation Foal Eagle
Vertical Ascents From Project Blue Book Unknowns

23 Jan 2023

By Fran Ridge & Brad Sparks

In the late 60's Dr. Edward Condon and staff (University of Colorado) was conducting their two-year, $300,000 study for the Air Force on UFOs and personally received two NORAD briefings. All of the information they were provided was lies.  1) We don't track UFOs because they don't exist.  2) We can't track UFOs at all, only missiles & satellites on missile/sat radars. Then a year later the university's Robert Low got a classified briefing from AF's top reconnaissance scientist proving these were lies, and not denying that NORAD had tracked UFOs "coming in from outer space."  Low told Condon, but we have no idea what they did with that.  But NORAD was never mentioned even once in the Condon Report. Declassified NORAD Histories prove these are lies.

More recently, in late 2019, Christoper Mellon, brought up electronic detection in his TTSA paper and mentioned NORAD, which can be read at:

The historical record is full of reports of UFOs with vertical ascents and descents. Based on what we know about space travel, this certainly isn't a surprise. But with what we have learned from "Operation Foal Eagle", this may explain the burst of electromagnetic energy that signals the arrival and departure of unknown objects and why and how MADAR picks them up.

We wish to thank Brad Sparks for the following comprehending list and synopses of Project Blue Book Unknowns illustrating UFO departures and arrivals.

July 7, 1947.  Elkhorn, Wisc.  11:45 a.m. (CST).  Pilot instructor and student took off from Elkhorn Airport in aircraft and immediately, at 800 ft height, sighted saucer-shaped object [in the distance to the WNW] descending vertically on edge through the alto-cumulus clouds at 6,000 ft over Koshkonong, Wisc., stop at 4,000 ft, assume horizontal orientation and fly horizontally for 15 secs, covering 25 miles [23 miles] at 6,000 mph [5,500 mph], [headed straight towards them on a course of about 120°] then stop again [apparently overhead] and disappear.  BB (Sign) case file missing but found in FBI (and AAF?) files.  (Sparks;  Loren Gross July 7-10, 1947, Hist.Supp.;  BB files;  FBI files) 15+ secs 2 witnesses

Gorman case Oct 1, 1948:  UFO rose vertically until it disappeared.  

Feb. 17, 1949.  SE of Grants (at 35° 7’ ±2’ N, 107°47’ ±2’ W), Sandia Base, and near Albuquerque (at 35° 5’ N, 106° 35’ W), New Mexico.  5:57-6:06 p.m.  Green Oil Co. truck driver Herman Wilcox, at Chief’s Rancho stop on Hwy 66 SE of Grants, NM, saw oval luminous white light with faint trail of white smoke in the SW at about 225° azimuth moving S in vertical climb then leveled off, then a gradual ascent, disappearing suddenly after several secs, no clouds in the sky to obscure it.  Univ. of NM Prof. of Civil Engineering Marvin May, an associate of Dr. Lincoln LaPaz in meteorite tracking, saw a brilliant white object in the W at 6° elevation at 5:57 p.m. for >6 mins total.  Object was first round [1/3 Full Moon in size at this point apparently] then shifted to ellipse as it approached then appeared to be elongated like a bent pipe with corners, 1 Full Moon in length and 1/10 in width.  Object made slight climbing turn to the N, shifted to peach color [yellow-orange?] as it made rapid sharp turning climb to the S at the end, disappearing in cloudless sky by diminishing in size and brightness.  100 Sandia Base guards including Officer of the Guard saw a yellow-orange cigar or yellow-red cigar-shaped object for 7 minutes from 5:59 to 6:06 p.m.  (Sparks;  BB Maxwell Microfilm Roll 5, pp. 546-557, NARA Microfilm Roll 88, p. 401, Roll 91, p. 412;  FOIA;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)  9 mins 100+ witnesses 1 Full Moon UNM Civil Engr Prof / meteorite tracker (LaPaz assoc.)

Feb. 24, 1950.  Los Alamos, New Mexico.  1:15-2:00 p.m.  At various locations around Los Alamos, AESS security personnel, including Philip C. Mackey AESS Inspector and another AESS inspector, and 2 Los Alamos Lab chemical operators, sighted shiny metallic or bright white, silver white, saucer or sphere hovering to the NW at azimuth 310° elevation about 30°, estimated distance possibly 20,000 to 30,000 ft, size estimated at about 100 ft if at 20,000-30,000 ft range, then moving erratically, flashing bright sunlight at times, heading E or NE, then suddenly climbing vertically at possibly supersonic speed straight up out of sight at about 70° elevation.  One witness reported object dispersed nearby clouds as it passed, and emitted an intermittent vapor trail, no  trail reported by others;  no sound noted by anyone.  (Sparks;  BB Microfilm Roll 91, pp. 365-9) 2 to 45 mins 4+ witnesses 1/3 to 1/2 Full Moon

March 3, 1950.  Selfridge AFB, Mich. 11:05 p.m.  USAF 1st Lt. Frank Mattson saw an intense, dull yellowish light descend vertically, then fly straight and level at high speed.  (Sparks;  Berliner)  4 mins 1 witness

Aug. 30, 1950.  S of Sandy Point/Indian Head, Newfoundland, Canada.  1:30-1:50 p.m. (ADT).  3 civilian Harmon AFB Water Transportation Section employees, John Kaeel, Fred Messervery and John Smith, located [in a boat] about 2 miles S of Indian Head (48°29’ N, 58°30’ W) saw a black or dark round object the size [shape?] of a barrel resembling a “large balloon” located about 3 miles SW of Indian Head (at 48°27’ N, 58°33’ W) about 1-1.5 [?] miles offshore [apparently about 2 miles to the W of the observers].  The object was hovering just above the water and after a few mins began to slowly ascend to about 15-20 ft above water, then descended again to just above water, in about a 40-60-sec cycle each time which occurred 3 times.  On the last cycle the object remained near the surface about 3-4 mins when it ascended vertically until disappearance at 1:50 p.m.   [See similar sighting at 2 p.m. near Kippens.]  Helicopter search at 4:20 p.m. negative.  [No unidentified ground radar returns were reported yet false explanation of “WX Returns” (weather returns) inserted into BB file listings.]  (Sparks;  Jan Aldrich)  20 mins 3 witnesses 1/10 – 1/4 ?? Full Moon

Dec. 7, 1951.  Oak Ridge, Tenn. (at 35°56’ N, 84°25’ W).  8:15 a.m.  AESS guard J. H. Collins in Tower #14 W of K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, ORNL, [at about 700-800 ft ASL] saw a 20 ft square object, white-grey but not shiny, like a piece of canvas with no markings, to the NNW about 300 ft above ridge anout 1 mile away [Blackoak Ridge, height about 1,000-1,100 ft ASL], fly vertically into the clouds at about 6,000 ft ASL and back again 300 ft above ridge, taking 30-40 seconds each time traveling at constant speed like that of conventional aircraft [roughly 100 mph at about 4,600 ft in 30-40 secs].  On second rise object climbed at 45° angle to the left and into the clouds then emerged out of the clouds diving straight down to 300 ft above ridge.  Object circled slowly as it rose a third time at a 20° angle into the clouds again finally disappearing.  Always kept broadside to witness.  No sound or smoke.  Report mistakenly treated as ground intrusion, thus GCI radar not alerted until 10:02 a.m., and F-47 fighters dispatched found nothing.  (Sparks;  BB Maxwell Microfilm Roll 9, pp. 640-4;  Berliner;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)  2 mins 1 witness

March 20, 1952.  Centerville (Queen Anne’s County), Maryland.  10:42 p.m.  CIA clandestine employee [OPC?] who was WW1/WW2 Army veteran and pilot with extensive flight experience, A. D. Hutchinson, and son (Hutchinson Jr.), saw a dull orange-yellow saucer-shaped light, lighting looking like that of old-fashion light-bulb and about 2-3x size of aircraft wing light [or about 4-6 ft?], fly straight and level very fast from SW to SE about half way between horizon and zenith [or roughly 30° to 45° elevation], possibly about 5 miles away [better estimate about 1 mile], then made 2 sudden vertical jumps on order of 2° upwards each jump, jumps being like a “basketball bounce,” before disappearing behind trees.  No sound.  (Sparks;  BB Maxwell Roll 9, pp. 1097 to 1100;  Berliner;  Randle)  30 secs 2 witnesses 1/3 ?? Full moon

March 29, 1952.  20 miles N of Misawa AFB, Japan (40°42’ N, 141°23’ E).  11:20 a.m.  Lt. David C. Brigham, pilot of AT-6 trainer flying at 150-160 mph at 6,000 ft, saw a small, very thin, shiny metallic 8-inch diameter disc with no vapor trail or exhaust fly alongside the AT-6, then make a pass at an F-84 jet fighter, flip on edge, flutter 20 ft from the F-84's fuselage for 2-3 secs and flip in the slipstream,, then cross in front, pulling up in a steep almost vertical climb to disappearance.  (Sparks;  Aldrich/Project 1947;  Berliner;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)  10 secs 1? witness

April 13, 1952.  Moriarty AFS, New Mexico (35° 1'50" N, 105°49' 0" W, 6,700 ft ASL).   4:45 p.m. (MST).  4 USAF airmen of the 768th AC&W Sq ADC radar station, Staff Sgt. John R. O’Neal, A/1c David C. Miller, A/2c Earl O. Cormier, Airman Basic Charles E. Baker, saw silver disc-shaped (or egg-shaped) object to the E estimated altitude 40,000+ ft traveling very erratically at high speed, disappeared making a turn to the N due to its flatness in profile, then reappeared further N, then disappeared again in vertical dive, reappeared further S, and finally disappeared heading S.  No trail, exhaust or sound.  [Possible CPS-5D radar tracking denied but uncertain?]  (Sparks;  BB Maxwell Microfilm Roll 9, pp. 1368-1405;  McDonald files;  Jan Aldrich;  BB Rpt 6;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)   3-5 mins 4? Full Moons

May 12, 1952.  Roswell, New Mexico (at 33.3975° N, 104.5262° W).  8:45 p.m. (MST).  Walker AFB USAF Tech Sgt Raymond Bare was in a car in downtown Roswell when he saw a blue-green light, first star-like then apparently round, at an estimated altitude of 20,000 to 30,000 feet and estimated distance of 40-50 miles over some [low] mountains E of Ruidosa at about 270° due W of Sgt Bare.  The object traveled three times over approximately the same S-N, E-W “swaying” triangular course at a speed that seemed faster than a jet.  Object ascended vertically to about 40,000 to 50,000 ft then back again to 20,000-30,000 ft [elevation angles ~10° to ~5°] at a descent angle of about 25° from horizontal.  Contrary to BB’s explanation of “PROB VENUS,” Venus was on the other side of the Earth.  (Sparks; Fran Ridge/NICAP;  BB files) 25 mins 1 witness

May 22, 1952.  Falls Church [or Alexandria], Virginia, (at 38°52' N, 77°10' W).  Bet. 1 and 2 a.m.  Top CIA official and several dinner guests, including a retired general, noticed noiseless red light approach from W at about 5,000 ft then suddenly climb almost vertically in the SE, stop, level out for a few secs, go into near vertical dive, level off, disappear to the E.  (Sparks;  Ruppelt pp. 135-6;  BB Status Rpt 7;  Jan Aldrich).   6+ witnesses

June 28, 1952.  Kirtland AFB, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  1:20 p.m.  2 observers with CARCO air service saw 2 silvery disc-like objects high in the sky moving slowly to the S, noiseless, suddenly climbed nearly vertically at high speed, one going SSE the other almost due E.  (Sparks;  Hynek UFO Exp ch. 6, case DD-7)  30 secs 2 witnesses

July 19, 1952.  Centerville, Va.  12 midnight.  Part-time farmer Constatine (Constantine?) and hired hand Davis saw 2 cigar-shaped objects, one hovering the other moving to the E then come back, both ascending vertically until disappearing.  Both objects transparent (translucent?), lit from within, and emitted an exhaust from one end.  Object shapes possibly more like elongated footballs.  (Sparks;  Battelle Unknown No. 4;  BB Index Maxwell Microfilm Roll 2, p. 293)    3-4 mins 2 witnesses

Aug. 3, 1952.  Truth or Consequences, New Mexico.  10:20 p.m.  Civilian engineer Anderson saw 3 light-green cylindrical objects hovering at 45° elevation in inverted-V formation, switching to echelon when one object moved, with a rolling motion along its long axis.  Disappeared by rapidly rising vertically.  (Sparks;  BB Status Report 8, Dec 1952, p. 33;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)  9 mins 1 witness 4 Full Moons

Aug. 6-7 [7?], 1952.  Port Lyautey [Mina Hassam Tani?], French Morocco (34°20’ N, 6°34’ W).  7:51 p.m.  Control tower personnel and 3 USN officer pilots [one named Dobos?] while flying R5-D saw a brilliant white disc-shaped luminous object with red blinking light, leaving a smoke trail, traveling straight and level at high speed then shot up vertically to 15,000 ft at high speed, then hovered, descended. When aircraft tried to climb towards object it started moving at high speed and chase was abandoned.  (Sparks;  Hynek-CUFOS re-eval;  Jan Aldrich;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)  4+ witnesses

Aug. 25, 1952.  Frontenac-Pittsburg, Kansas.  5:35 a.m. (CST).  Radio station musician William Squyres saw 70-75 ft inverted platter-shaped dull aluminum color object to right side of road about 40° elevation and 750 ft away with head and shoulders of a "man" inside visible in a window, midsection had many windows in which regular motion of some kind could be seen.  He stopped the car and got out to look from 300 ft away, object had "rocking motion" and deep throbbing sound, series of 6-7-inch rapidly rotating "propellers," then after 1/2 min rose vertically at high speed from 10 ft height, with the sound like a mass of quail suddenly aflight, and disappeared in a gap of broken clouds but not behind clouds.  Later found 60 ft circle of grass matted down in the field.  (Sparks;  Hynek UFO Rpt pp. 200-3;  Battelle Unknown No. 12;  Vallée Magonia 98;  Randle)   1/2 min. + 1 witness 25 Full Moons

Aug. 25, 1952.  Holloman AFB, New Mexico.  3:40 p.m.  Civilian supervisor Fred Lee and foreman L. A. Aquilar saw a round silver object fly S, turn and fly N, make a 360° turn, fly away vertically.  (Sparks;  Berliner)  3-5 mins 2 witnesses

Dec. 29, 1952.  About 35 miles W of Amarillo near Vega, Texas (at 35°15' N, 102°25' W) and ESE of Tucumcari, New Mexico.  9:05 p.m. (CST).  USAF Capt. William T. Bowley and Capt. Herbert T. Lange, both of Perrin AFB, Texas, piloting a B-26 on a training flight headed W at 257° at 6,000 ft altitude and 250 knots (300 mph) saw a extremely large and intense bright round bluish-white light with frequent green tints, no trail or exhaust or aerodynamic features, about 3x the size of a C-54 (or about 350 ft) at a distance of possibly 40 miles at their 11 o'clock position paralleling their course at about the same altitude 6,000 ft heading forward but closing with the B-26.  After 5 mins object suddenly climbed vertically 7,000 ft in 5 secs [1,400 ft/sec average, or peak velocity about 2,000 mph at about 17 g's] to disappear in thin broken overcast clouds at 13,000 ft and causing the clouds to glow as if lit by searchlight.  Bowley radioed the CAA controller in Tucumcari, N.Mex.  Shortly after, the object reappeared under the clouds, the CAA controller was told to look for it but couldn't see it [probably because he was told to look in the wrong direction, to the SW, or it was obscured by clouds], after 2 mins it climbed to the W and disappeared.  (Sparks;  Jan Aldrich)  7-10 mins 2 witnesses 1/6 Full moon

Jan. 10, 1953.  8 miles NW of Sonoma, Calif. 3:45 or 4 p.m. [4:45 p.m. PST?]  Retired AF Col. Robert McNab, and Mr. Hunter of the Federal Security Agency saw a flat object to the NW at 45° elevation traveling about 2,400 mph make three 360° right turns in 2-3 secs each in about 1/8 radius required for jets [i.e., about 1/4 mile radius and 300 g's], two abrupt 90° turns to the right and left, each turn 5 secs apart, almost stop, accelerate to original high speed, almost stop again, speed up again and finally fly out of sight vertically.  Sound similar to F-86 at high altitude.  (Sparks;  Hynek UFO Rpt pp. 115-6)   60-75 secs 2 witnesses 1/2 Full Moon

Feb. 17, 1953.  Elmendorf AFB, Alaska.  6:55 p.m. (AHST).  Ground observers and fighter interception.  Nocturnal light with rapid vertical takeoff.  (Sparks;  Berliner;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)  5+ mins 6 witnesses

Aug. 20, 1953.  Near Castle AFB, Calif.  9:05 p.m. [GMT?]  Crew of TB-29 bomber/trainer plane saw a greyish oval object make 4 passes at the airplane (3 times at 10-20 miles distance), then dive vertically as if two objects [?].  (Berliner;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)  2+ witnesses

Oct. 15, 1953.  Minneapolis, Minn.  10:10 a.m. (CST).  General Mills Aeronautical Lab research engineers James A. Winker, Fletcher L. Bartholomew (MIT meteorologist-engineer and former AF pilot), and Richard J. Reilly (private pilot with degree in aeronautical engineering and supersonic aerodynamics).  During tracking of Project GRAB BAG 79-foot long tear-drop shaped Skyhook balloon at 73,000-74,000 ft [about 40 miles away if at about 20°-25° elevation], a 40-50 ft object was spotted, appearing to be over Ft. Snelling 12 to 14 miles SE of observers, at about 130°-140° azimuth, 23°-25° elevation, about 5° below balloon, leaving vapor or smoke trail.  Object traveling S in horizontal flight 10° in 9 secs at about 40,000 (to 50,000) ft altitude, roughly 900 to 1,100 mph, passed below the sun [at 31° to 32° elevation, 148° to 149° azimuth].  Object left white vapor trail that immediately dissipated so as to keep constant 5° to 8° length during travel of emitting object.  Went into “dangerous” vertical dive at about 175°-180° (or 160°-170°) azimuth for about 10-15 secs dropping about 10° to about 15°-20° (or 18°-20°) elevation, object leveled out in a curve 3°-5° azimuth back to the left and vapor trail ceased to be emitted, then object glowed or flashed in the sun 2-3 times for 1 sec each as if metallic and reflective, seen as a gray mass in the theodolite.  Disappeared suddenly with flash of light.  Angular size about same as GRAB BAG balloon [that was about 40 miles away, thus about 1.3 arcmins]. (Sparks;  Hynek UFO Rpt pp. 113-4;  Hynek UFO Exp ch. 6, case DD-9;  Saunders/FUFOR Index;  Project BB Microfilm Roll 19, pp. 1225-1264)   40-55 secs 3 witnesses 1/20 Full Moon (0.5° ? equiv. in theodolite) aeronautical research engineers;  theodolite instrument

Dec. 16, 1953.  Ground site 3 miles WNW of Agoura, Calif., (at 34° 9.75’ N,  118° 47’ W) and aircraft SW of Long Beach, Calif.  4:58-5:05 p.m. (PST).  Lockheed Skunk Works chief Clarence L. “Kelly” Johnson and wife near Agoura and top Lockheed crew aboard WV-2 aircraft near Long Beach about 30 miles away, independently of each other, saw black flying-wing or ellipse or crescent-shaped object about 170-230 ft wide at about 15,000 ±2,000 ft altitude to the W hovering about 30-60 miles away (255° ±1° True to Johnson;  285°-290° True to WV-2 crew, or 270°-275° magnetic) against the bright sky of the immediate post-sunset background.  At 5:04 p.m. after 4 mins to the Johnsons (6 mins to WV-2 crew) object suddenly took off in a shallow climb accelerating [at about 130 g's to approximately earth escape velocity (25,000 mph)] to the W over the Pacific, disappearing in ~10-13 secs (to WV-2 crew) or 90 secs (to Johnson using 8x binoculars) [after reaching 90+ miles altitude].  Projected target radiant at ascent angle of about 5° at about azimuth 270° is at 17 hrs Right Ascension +2° Declination.  (Sparks) 7 mins 7+ witnesses 1/10 Full Moon (2/3 Full Moon or 0.3° equiv. in binocs) world's leading aircraft designer, Cal Tech trained Lockheed chief aerodynamicist, chief test pilots;  binoculars

Feb. 1, 1954.  35 miles SW of Tuscaloosa, Alabama [E of Palestine, Texas?].  2 or 3:15 p.m. (CST).  Electronics engineer Verne Baumgartner of Winzen Research and pilot Glenn Hovland, crew of USN Office of Naval Research (ONR) aircraft at 6,000 or 12,000 ft heading E at 80 [?] or 120 mph towards a Skyhook cosmic-ray balloon at 90,000-100,000 ft and 15-30 [20?] miles away from the balloon saw 2 then 4 objects for a total of 6 very bright or deep white or gray circular objects about 20 ft in size [had to be at least 100 ft for shape to be visible to naked eye if 15 miles away] in evenly spaced V-formation (or trail formation?) at about 80,000 or 85,000 ft about 15 miles away at about 45° (or 60°) above horizontal fly over [in between aircraft and balloon] to the left or N of the balloon and around the balloon [??], hover [?] under the balloon in level flight headed ENE then vertically ascend at right angles to level flight out of sight at about 70° elevation in several seconds, estimated speed 1,000 mph.  Movie film taken by Bolex camera with 6-inch telephoto lens.  Observed through binoculars.  Balloon camera took one photo which captured some of the UFOs, which reportedly were translucent (terrain could be seen through them).  (Sparks;  Hynek-CUFOS-Willy Smith files;  BB files;  Austin, Minn., Daily Herald, July 22, 1954;  Joel Carpenter)  1-1/2 to 5 mins 2 witnesses

March 9, 1954.  Cincinnati, Ohio.  3:57-4:05? a.m.  Civilian-military pilot John H. Stewart while driving N saw a pulsating bluish-white luminous halo surrounding a dark ellipsoidal object that may have been larger than a DC-6 (117 ft) slowly moving S at about 2,000-3,000 ft height, then hovered for 7-8 mins over the General Electric plant, the last 4 mins of which Stewart observed after stopping his car.  Object accelerated and suddenly changed color to yellow then red, changed course to the E, then disappeared in an almost vertical climb in secs.  (Sparks;  Jan Aldrich)  7-8+ mins ? 1 witness 4 Full Moons

April 23, 1954.  Pittsfield, Maine (at 44°53' N, 69°35'W).  9:30 a.m.  Mr. and Mrs. Floyd E. and Rose Belle Robinson saw a silver circular saucer-shaped object with a dome 1/2 the size of the base that was the source of constantly flashing brilliant light, making a loud sound like a swarm of bees, which hovered at about 70° azimuth without tilting, flew horizontally with a whirlwind effect and cold air that moved stones underneath its path, then it rose vertically at 30° azimuth without tilting until out of sight.  (Sparks;  Jan Aldrich)  4 mins 2 witnesses 6 Full Moons

Feb. 3 (or 7), 1955.  Knights Landing, Calif.  4:30 p.m. (PST).  Electronic technician and civilian pilot George M. Allender sighted from the ground a large 350 to 500 ft size delta-wing or flying wing type aircraft in the NW headed towards him at about 2,500 to 4,000 ft altitude and about 2,500 ft ground distance.  No exhaust, no smoke, no markings, no visble means of propulsion.  Object climbed vertically about 34,000 ft in 20 secs to 38,000 ft, then accelerated ahead of a flight of about 7 jets (possibly F-86’s) flying SE from his NW at about 600 mph, then object dove about 37,000 ft in 12 secs to about 1,000 ft altitude.  Object could almost hover motionless and reach speeds of 2,000 mph. (Sparks) 4-5 mins 1 witness [10 ?] Full Moons

Oct. 4, 1955.  SW of Baku (near Atjaty / Alyat, at 40.0° N, 49.3° E), USSR.  7:10 p.m.  US Sen. Richard B. Russell, US Army Col. E. U. Hathaway, CIA Clandestine Service Foreign Intelligence (FI) Staff officer Reuben Efron (under cover as a “translator” or “interpreter”), and an accompanying Calif. businessman named Robert R. Gros, VP of Public Relations of PG&E (Pacific Gas & Electric), sighted to the S two separate nearly vertical ascents of a lighted domed-disc saucer-shaped object, possibly size of jet fighter [50 ft] about 1 minute apart, while traveling by train (Sen. Russell was the only witness to the 1st ascent and alerted the others who saw the 2nd).  Efron saw object that appeared like 2 bright white “eyes” that remained fixed to each other, which ascended at an angle that seemed to come towards the train and cross over but Efron did not see it continue on the other (North) side of train.  (Sparks;  Joel Carpenter;  FOIA docs from CIA, FBI;  Haines CIA UFO history;  etc.) ? + 6-7 secs 4 witnesses 1? Full Moon

Oct. 7, 1956.  Castle AFB area, Calif.  10:45 p.m. (PST).  2-3 USAF F-86D pilots, Lt Jerry Owen Robinett, Lt Alvin A. Akins, and possibly Lt. Donata Correa, Intelligence Officer, [on ground?] from 456th FIS, Castle AFB, were scrambled or redirected already in air about 11:10 p.m. to intercept a UFO reported by ground witnesses [Thomas Salazar and police officers in Merced, and another in Merced].  Football-shaped or dome-shaped UFO estimated at 100-120 ft diameter and 50-60 ft high, dipped up and down vertically into an overcast cloud bank layer at 11,000 to 21,000 ft, playing “cat and mouse” with F-86 pilots stationed above and below cloud layer to catch the object.  Akins got brief airborne radar contacts that immediately terminated as if the UFO was monitoring the radar beam (by ELINT).  (Sparks;  Jan Aldrich;  Loren Gross Sept-Oct 1956, Nov-Dec 1956 Supp.;  McDonald papers;  BB files) 3-4 secs + 45-60 Secs + ? 5+ witnesses

March 6, 1957.  Great Meadows-Hope, New Jersey.  2 p.m.  Mrs. Martin’s attention drawn by barking dogs looking up at white derby-hat-shaped object 50+ ft wide hovering low over a field about 450 ft away with a gentle rocking motion and streamers underneath like tinsel.  Object suddenly took off almost vertically to the NE without sound disappearing into cloud bank.  (Sparks;  Hynek UFO Rpt pp. 151-4;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)   1+ min 1 witness 12 Full Moons

Nov. 3, 1957.  9 miles E of Levelland, 1 mile W of Smyer, Texas.  12:05 a.m.  Texas Tech college student Newell H. Wright was driving W when the ammeter on his car dashboard started fluctuating widely, car motor gradually went out then headlights and radio died.  He got out to check and saw a white or aluminum-colored oval-shaped object flat on the bottom like a loaf of bread, with a greenish tint, about 75-125 ft long.  After a few mins object suddenly rise up from the road ahead and ascend almost vertically at great speed, slightly to the N, disappearing in secs.  Afterward car was able to be restarted.   (Hynek UFO Exp ch. 9;  Tony Rullán;  Vallée Magonia 419)  4 mins 1 witness EM effects

Nov. 4, 1957.  3 miles SE of El Paso Airport, Texas.  7:30 p.m.  Border Patrol inspector Burton saw egg-shaped object with bluish glow approaching from the SW at 30° elevation with whirring sound like artillery shell after car stalled and headlights dimmed and blacked out.  Object passed over car at 100 ft height headed W, changing altitude at irregular intervals, rose vertically at Franklin Mtns.  (Sparks;  Hynek UFO Rpt p. 181;  Saunders/FUFOR Index)   1 witness EM effects

Nov. 14, 1957.  23 miles NE of Hill City [airport], Kansas (at 39°37' N, 99°32' W).  5:34 p.m. (CST).  USAF pilot Major William B. Taft and co-pilot 1st Lt. Joshua M. Hinson, flying B-47E bomber based at SAC 339th Bomb Squadron (Medium), Dyess AFB, Abilene, Texas, at 36,000 ft true heading 183° at 410 knots TAS true air speed (=true course ~173° and true ground speed ~412 knots with 270° ~70 knot wind).  Sighted oval metallic silver gray object shaped like a football but with rounder ends, and with a brighter Saturn-like horizontal ring not extending beyond the edges of the oval.  Object was first seen about 25° above the aircraft nose [~20° above aircraft horizontal] and about 70° to the right (~253° true azimuth or nearly W) at about “2 o’clock high,” stationary for about 4 minutes [8 mins?] 5,000 to 10,000 higher altitude (41,000 to 46,000 ft), then followed another B-47 headed in the opposite direction at same flight altitude (36,000 ft) north-bound true heading 360°, about 20 NM to the W, remaining stationary above the other B-47 for about 1 minute as UFO and other B-47 fell behind to about “4 o’clock high” at 120° relative bearing (~303° true azimuth or about WNW) about 25° above nose level [about same relative 20° local aircraft horizontal level] then rose vertically “very rapidly” accelerating until disappearing, brighter while in motion.  [B-47E final position about 38°42' to 35' N, 99°25' to 24' W at 5:42 to 5:43 p.m. CST.]  Dyess AFB ground observers suggested Venus was bright in the sky.  However the sun had not set yet at the B-47E’s altitude (upper limb ~1° to ~0.1° above earth’s apparent horizon in about 248° to 249° (about WSW) corrected for refraction and aircraft altitude / geometric depression angle, gradually setting) and Venus’ position was at 206° to 208° azimuth, elevation 19° to local aircraft horizontal, in the SSW not W/WNW about 47° to 95° away.  If UFO was about 1-2 miles higher, thus 3-6 miles distant, and angular size roughly pea at arm’s length (about 1 Full Moon), then actual size ~100-200 ft.  (Sparks;  BB files) 8-9 mins 2 witnesses ~1 Full Moon

Oct. 7, 1958.  Alexandria, Virginia (at 38°47.9’N, 77° 2.6’ W).  6:02 p.m. (EDT).  John R. Townsend, Special Assistant for Research & Engineering to the Asst. Secretary of Defense, saw a large stationary sharply outlined Saturn-shaped “silvery” or “aluminum clad” oblate spherical object (with “gossamer” surface appearance) with a rim or girdle around its equator in clear sky due S azimuth about 180° at about 20° elevation for about 10 secs, which started rapidly rising at an estimated speed of 1,000 mph and disappeared due to extreme distance at about 30° to 35° elevation still due S after 40 secs, with the impression it was heading away from him to the S growing smaller until unable to be seen [apparently increased distance to at least 400 miles to drop below minimum visual resolution, at about 36,000 mph average velocity at 80 g's acceleration to an altitude of about 200 miles, terminal velocity about 72,000 mph].  Witness estimated UFO angular size as 3° and actual size 600 ft at distance of 3 nautical miles, using the passing and turning Capital [not “Capitol”] Airlines Flight 407 at 2 miles distance during the sighting as aerial distance reference point.  Townsend was familar with standard takeoff pattern of flights from Washington National Airport and said that the airliner he saw during the sighting headed S on a track about 1 mile to his left (along the Potomac River) and then turned right across his field of view of the UFO.  Pilot of Capital Flight 407 took off in a DC-4 at 5:59 p.m. (EDT) from Washington National heading S, climbed to 2,000 ft and as he was turning right to a W heading out of the traffic pattern [at about 6:02 p.m.] he saw an “unidentified aircraft” with “nose light” at about 3,000 ft heading N, seen in the direction of or over Beacon Field 3 miles to the W (at about azimuth 265° so object was in the glare of the setting sun at approximately elevation 7° azimuth 258° and may have been reflecting the sunlight so as to appear to have a “nose light”).  Thus sighting lines crossed with Townsend at right angles, establishing distance and location of object by triangulation as 2 miles S of Townsend at about 3,000 ft altitude and 1 mile W of the airliner, or at 38°46’N, 77° 3’W, and thus actual size as about 500 ft and angular elevation to Townsend about 17° in close agreement with Townsend’s 600 ft size estimate and 20° elevation measurement (done by protractor after the sighting) and in exact agreement with pilot estimate of 3,000 ft altitude of object [though distance is difficult to estimate and UFO was closer to the Capital flight than Beacon Field].  No sound.  Townsend reenacted the timing by walking the half block down the N-S running Lee Street (which runs toward 190° True azimuth).  BB proposed nonsense theory of sun reflection on cloud or ice crystals as sun set “behind the horizon” – in fact sun set 40 mins later at 6:42 p.m. EDT.  Projected target radiant of UFO at ascent angle of about 30° at about azimuth 180° is at 17 hrs Right Ascension -20° Declination in constellation Ophiuchus.  (Sparks;  Jan Aldrich;  BB files;  Loren Gross Oct. 1958 pp. 22-24, 26)  50 secs 2+ witnesses 6 Full Moons highest DoD R&D official; air-ground triangulation

Oct. 26, 1958.  Loch Raven Dam, Maryland.  10:30 p.m. (EST).  Phillip Small and Alvin Cohen saw a large, flat egg-shaped object, flying low about 100-150 ft above the bridge, which affected their car's electrical system and caused a burning sensation, rose vertically and disappeared in 5-10 secs. (Hynek UFO Exp ch. 9, case CEII-4;  NICAP;  BB Microfilm Roll )  1-2 mins 2 witnesses EM effects

Nov. 19, 1958.  Montauk AFB, New York.  9:30 a.m. (EST).  A/2c James A. Frey, scope operator, plus Weapons Director (not named), 773rd Radar Observation Network Squadron (SAGE), NORAD-ADC FPS-6 height-finder radar, detected target at 255° azimuth (approx. WSW), height 55,000 ft ascending [nearly] vertically at 3,000-3,500 ft/min with some [N?] component horizontally, to 77,000 ft [in about 7 mins].  Target then descended almost vertically at 4,000 ft/min [in about another 7 mins] with slight deviation ESE to azimuth 256° disappearance.  Range not stated, must have been 30+ miles since FPS-6 max elevation coverage is +32°, and max range usually given as 200 n.mi.   Went against wind coming from 270° 60 knots at 50,000 ft.  Second (similar?) target about 1 hour later.  Ascent rate much faster than typical weather balloons, usually standardized to 1,000 ft/min.  (Sparks;  BB files;  McDonald list) (14 mins) + ? 2+ ? witnesses NORAD radar

Sept. 13, 1959.  Gills Rock, Wisc.  1:05 a.m.  R. H. Daubner saw a round yellow light, with 8 blue lights within it, and 5 larger red lights, fly very fast vertically while making a pulsating jet noise.  (Sparks;  Berliner)  10 mins 1? witness

Dec. 21, 1964.  4 mi E of Staunton, Viginia.  5 p.m.  Mr. Horace Burns while driving ESE on Hwy 250 saw to the N a huge beehive-shaped object 80-90 ft high x 125 ft diameter cross the road, then his car engine suddenly stopped.  Object hovered at ground level in a field, then took off vertically for several hundred feet then to the NE.  Burns stopped car and got out before object flew off.  Prof. Ernest G. Gehman of Eastern Mennonite College obtained with Nuclear Chicago Portable Survey Meter Model 2612 (with P-15 Probe) Geiger counter reading of 17-18 milliR/hr on Dec. 30.  Using Nuclear Chicago Beta-Gamma Survey Meter Model 2586, BB investigators on Jan. 12, 1965, found 1.5 milliR/hr (=1,500 microR/hr) on Burns’ left rear car door but wrongly claimed it was normal background level (in fact is likely 30x-40x background but actual background level should have been determined).  Possible 11x-12x drop in radiation level in 13 days possibly indicates radionuclide with ≈ 3-4 day half-life.  Reportedly several homes in landing area had lights dimmed and radios and TV’s cease functioning for several mins at time of event.  (Sparks;  BB files;  Vallée Magonia 628)  1-2 mins 1+ witnesses radioactivity, EM?

April 17, 1966.  Portage County, Ohio, bet. Atwater and Randolph, Ohio, to Pittsburgh, Penna.  5-6:10 a.m. (EST).  E of Akron Deputy Sheriff Dale F. Spaur and associate Wilbur Neff saw a 30-45 ft metallic object approach over the treetops from the woods, bathing the witnesses and the whole area in light while making a transformer-like hum, then headed E and they gave chase in the patrol car at speeds up to 105 mph for 85 miles.  Officer Wayne Huston about 35 miles to the ESE saw the object he described as ice cream cone-shaped, point downwards, approach from the W and pass overhead at about 800-900 ft height with Spaur and Neff in pursuit to the SE and he joined them near Unity, Ohio, with the object about 1/2 to 3/4 mile ahead of them, reaching the Penna. state line at 5:35.  They lost sight of object at Brady Run Park regained it in Bridgeport, Penna.  At about this time officers Lonnie Johnson and Ray Esterly in Salem, Ohio, saw 3 jet fighters [two F-102’s] attempting to intercept a bright object at about 10,000-20,000 ft about 25° elevation to the E for about 2 mins.  In Conway, Penna., at 6 a.m. they met with officer Frank Panzarella who had been watching the object for 10 mins to the E or SE which he described as 25-35 ft half-football-shaped object at about 1,000 ft height (or 1,500-2,000 ft according to the others), when it stopped in the NE towards Harmony, Penna, then rose. They watched as the object climbed to about 3,500 ft to the left of and level with the quarter moon in the ESE (which was at about azimuth 116° elevation 14° aand 11% illuminated at 6:00 a.m.) and Venus (at 122° azimuth 22° elevation) and it passed near a 707 airliner taking off from Pittsburgh Airport and disappeared shooting up vertically at about 6:10.  (Sparks;  Hynek UFO Exp ch. 8; NICAP)   1 hr 10 mins many witnesses 4 ? Full Moons

July 25, 1966.  Between Greenville and Vanceboro, North Carolina.  1-2 a.m.  College student James Clark saw a pulsating object change color from orange to red to blue to green and back to orange, which followed his car through the woods at high speed up to 100 mph, then stopped and hovered over the car from 300 ft away about 50 ft high, wobbling on its axis, approached to 100 ft, then shot out of sight vertically in <5 secs.  (Sparks;  Berliner;  cf. Vallée Magonia 782)  1 hr 1 witness

Nov. 23, 1968.  Newton, Georgia (31.3° N, 84.36° W). 8:05 p.m.  Witness Mr. Jones, an accountant, saw collimated beam 5-6 ft wide come down from a point about 200 ft ahead and 75 ft off the ground illuminating trees after car radio faded to static.  Beam retracted slowly like a ladder to a fuzzy scintillating main light, oval-shaped yellowish-white about 100 [or 120-150?] ft wide, which then changed to brighter reddish-orange, rose vertically disappearing in less than 15 secs.  Car restarted spontaneously.  (Sparks;  Berliner;  cf. Hynek UFO Rpt pp. 189-191)  3-4 mins 1 witness 40 Full Moons EM effects

We are in the process of creating a more recent list of vertical ascents and descents, including those involving MADAR.

See more details in cases by year.
For more information on MADAR check out the

Fran Ridge