Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star

Last revised July 16, 1999




The Lockheed F-80


The initial production version of the Shooting Star, the P-80A, was ordered on April 4, 1944, when a Letter Contract for two batches of 500 aircraft was issued. In June of 1945, 2500 additional P-80As were ordered. However, following V-J Day this second contract was cancelled in its entirety and the first contract was cut back to 917 aircraft.

The P-80A was much the same as the YP-80A which preceded it, differing only in minor details. The P-80A introduced under-fuselage dive brakes which opened forward at the wing join, and had a landing light installed behind a transparent fairing in the upper nose. The intake lip was moved slightly further aft, and the tailplane incidence was raised by 1.5 degrees.

The first 345 aircraft of this contract (serials 44-84992 to 44-85336) were designated P-80A-1-LO. Some of them were powered by the 3850 lb.s.t. General Electric J33-GE-11 turbojet, the production version of the I-40 which had powered the XP-80A and the YP-80A. Others were powered by the Allison J33-A-9, a version of the same engine built by the Allison Division of the General Motors Corporation.

The next 218 aircraft in the contract (44-85337 to 44-85941 and 45-8301 to 45-8262) were built as the P-80A-5-LO production block and differed by being equipped with the more powerful 4000 lb.s.t. Allison J33-A-17. The -5 also introduced a boundary layer control splitter plate inside the air intake. The landing light was relocated from the nose to the nosewheel landing gear strut. Later, the initial production P-80A-1-LOs were retrofitted with the uprated Allison engine during routine engine overhauls.

On January 19, 1945, North American Aviation had been awarded a contract to produce one thousand P-80As in its Dallas plant. The designation given to these license-produced Shooting Stars was P-80N. However, this contract was cancelled shortly after V-E Day, and no P-80Ns were ever completed.

The first P-80A was accepted by the AAF in February of 1945, and the last was delivered in December 1946. Early P-80As had a overall light grey finish which was used to seal all skin joints. This finish proved to be too hard to maintain in service, and was deleted in favor of a natural metal finish.

Another F-80A-1-LO (44-85042) was modified in the field as ERF-80A-1-LO to test new photographic equipment in a nose of modified contour.

One P-80A-1-LO airframe (44-85201) was modified as an unarmed photographic reconnaissance aircraft, with the guns being replaced by a set of cameras. The aircraft was redesignated XFP-80A, the F-14 designation originally planned for the reconnaissance version of the Shooting Star having been dropped. The XFP-80A differed from the original XF-14 in having a more elongated nose which hinged upward to provide better access to the cameras.

38 P-80A-5-LOs were completed during construction as FP-80A-5-LO photographic reconnaissance aircraft. Serials were 44-85383, 58385, 85399, 85425, 85433, 85439, the odd numbers in the batch of 44-85443 to 44-85491 inclusive, and the even-numbers in the batch 45-8301 to 45-8314 inclusive. Following the production of these modified recon aircraft, a new batch of aircraft (45-8364 to 45-8477) was manufactured from scratch as FP-80A-5-LO. This designation was later changed to RF-80A. Camera installation consisted of one K-17 camera and two K-22 split-vertical cameras. These all had camera noses that were generally similar to that of the XFP-80A. They were initially powered by the 3850 lb.s.t. General Electric J33-GE-11 engine.

In addition 66 production P-80A fighters were converted by Lockheed Aircraft Services, Inc as photo-reconnaissance ships. They differed from factory-built models in having a less even contour over the nose at the very front of the aircraft. They were redesignated RF-80A-15-LO. An unknown number of RF-80As were modified to RF-80A-10-LO standard with the installation of an AN/ARN-6 radio compass, JATO, plenum chamber fire warning units, modified heating, cooling, and pressurization. The -10 block aircraft were powered by J33-A-9A or -9B and J33-GE-11A or -11B engines. However, in 1953, 98 of these -10 and -15 FP-80As were re-engined with the 5400 lb.s.t. Allison J33-A-25 engine. These were redesignated RF-80A-20-LO and RF-80A-25-LO respectively.

Three P-80As (44-8500, 44-85005, and 45-85235) were transferred to the US Navy for trials. They received BuNos 29667, 29668 and 29689 respectively, but apparently never got a Navy designation. 29667 was turned over to the Navy on May 17, 1945, and carried out simulated carrier landings at NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, with much of the flying being done by Cmdr Najeeb Halaby. 29668 reached the Navy on Dec 18, 1945 and was fitted with a catapult bridle and arrestor hook. 29668 was used for carrier-suitability trials aboard the aircraft carrier *Franklin D. Roosevelt*, with Marine Corps LtCol Marion Carl carrying out several landings and takeoffs. However, the Navy never experienced any interest in acquiring a carrier-based version of the single-seat Shooting Star fighter.

One of the problems experienced by all early jet fighters was their relatively limited range and endurance as compared to conventional piston-engined fighters. One idea that was given serious thought at the time was for jet fighters to be towed like gliders behind bombers until they reached the combat zone. These fighters would then be cut free, start their engines, and engage in combat. When combat was over, the fighters would re-link to the bombers for the tow back home. In May of 1945, P-80A serial number 44-84995 was transferred to Wright Field for use in testing of the feasibility of this idea. An attachment bar for the cable tow was installed in the nose of the P-80A. It could be engaged or released by the pilot. The cable not only provided a tow, it also provided electrical power to the P-80A. Several tests were carried out in which the aircraft was towed behind a Boeing B-29A-10-BN (42-93921). On September 23, 1947, LtCol Pat Fleming took off and attempted to link up in midair to the B-29 tow cable. After several attempts were frustrated by air turbulence from the B-29, he finally succeeded in linking up to the end of the tow cable. He was towed through the air for 10 minutes. When it came time to unhook, the tow bar stubbornly refused to release. Fleming finally maneuvered underneath the B-29, where the bomber's bow wave snapped the attachment point backwards, blocking his forward view. Fleming managed to land safely, but the program was immediately terminated as being impractical. 44-84995 was eventually repaired and restored to standard P-80A configuration and returned to active service.

P-80A-1-LO 44-85044 was tested with a modified rotating nose housing four machine guns which could be elevated up to an angle of 90 degrees. The idea was for the P-80 to be able to approach an enemy bomber from below and be able to fire on it without being in danger of return fire. However, when these guns were fired, the P-80A bucked and trembled and the accuracy of fire left much to be desired, and the idea was abandoned. It was later fitted with a second cockpit in the nose in which the pilot lay prone. The regular cockpit was occupied by a safety pilot who made takeoffs and landings, navigated, and handled flaps and speed brakes. However, the prone pilot was situated so far forward that he experienced vertigo during maneuvers. The idea was abandoned as being impractical.

P-80A-1-LO 44-85116 was fitted with jettisonable racks for 5-inch HVAR rockets in place of the wingtip tanks. Later, it was fitted with a rocket launcher gun in a modified nose. The nose incorporated louvres to exhaust the gases produced by the firing rockets.

P-80A 44-85354 was experimentally fitted with four 20-mm cannon in place of the standard six machine guns. However, this cannon armament was never adopted as standard.

P-80A 44-85214 was fitted with a 30-inch diameter Marquardt C30-10B ramjet on each wingtip. 44-85042 used a pair of 20-inch Marquardt C20-85D ramjets. The ramjets were first used in flight on March 12, 1947 and on June 17, 1948 44-85214 flew briefly on ramjet power alone. About a hundred sorties were made at Muroc, mainly by Lockheed test pilot Herman R. "Fish" Salmon. The ramjet program was discontinued when it became apparent that the ramjet consumed fuel at a much too rapid rate to make it a practical means of aircraft propulsion.

In June of 1948, the P-80A and FP-80A were redesignated F-80A and RF-80A respectively.

After the end of the Korean War, 137 F-80As and RF-80As were partially brought up to F-80C standards. These were redesignated F-80C-11-LO and RF-80C-11-LO respectively, and were issued to ANG and USAF reserve units. These RF-80Cs had improved camera installations in a nose of modified contour. The conversion consisted of the installation of the J33-A-35 engine, the installation of an ejector seat using an M-5 catapult and M-3 actuator, and provision for an AN/ARC-27 command radio.

Specification of the P-80A:

Engine: One General Electric J33-GE-11 or Allison J33-A-9 turbojet, rated at 3850 lb.s.t. Later production blocks powered by 4000 lb.s.t. Allison J33-A-17. Dimensions: wingspan 38 feet 10 1/2 inches (without wingtip tanks), length 34 feet 6 inches, height 11 feet 4 inches, and wing area 237.6 square feet Weights were 7920 pounds empty, 11,700 pounds gross, and 14,000 pounds maximum takeoff. Fuel load: 425 US gallons normal, 885 US gallons maximum. Performance: Maximum speed was 558 mph at sea level and 492 mph at 40,000 feet. Initial climb rate was 4580 feet/minute, and an altitude of 20,000 feet could be attained in 5.5 minutes. Service ceiling was 45,000 feet. Normal range was 780 miles, and maximum range was 1440 miles. Armament: Six 0.50-inch machine guns.

Serial numbers of Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star:

44-84992/85336	Lockheed P-80A-1-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1015/1359
84994 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
84999 at Hill AFB Museum, UT.
84995 used for tests in towing by B-29
85000 transferred to US Navy as BuNo 29667.
85001 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85004 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85005 transferred to US Navy as BuNo 29668.
85007 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85009 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85012 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85013 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85014 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85015 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85019 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85024 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85025 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85029 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85038 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85039 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85041 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85042 tested with wingtip-mounted ramjets.
85047 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85049 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85051 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85057 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85060 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85062 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85063 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85071 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85072 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85088 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85088 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85098 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85101 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85104 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85105 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85107 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85109 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85110 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85112 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85116 tested with wingtip rocket racks
85120 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85122 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85123 at Edwards AFB, CA.
85124 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85125 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85128 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85132 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85134 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85135 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85142 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85150 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85151 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85154 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85155 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85160 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85161 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85163 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85166 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85167 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85168 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85171 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85172 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85175 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85176 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85177 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85178 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85179 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85180 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85181 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85182 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85183 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85190 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85191 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85196 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85200 modified as XP-80B. Later modified as XP-80R and set
world's air speed redord of 623.738 mph June 19, 1947
flown by Col. Albert Boyd. Now at USAF Museum,
Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio.
85201 modified as XFP-80A. Later modified as RF-80C-11-LO
85205 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85210 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85214 tested with wingtip-mounted ramjets.
85216 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85217 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85225 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85226 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85227 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85229 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85230 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85231 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85235 transferred to USN as BuNo 29689
85237 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85239 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85240 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85242 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85244 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85245 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85246 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85247 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85249 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85252 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85253 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85260 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85261 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85262 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85264 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85268 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85269 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85270 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85279 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85281 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85283 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85284 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85285 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85287 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85290 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85291 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85293 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85297 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85300 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85310 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85315 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85320 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85321 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85322 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85324 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85328 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85330 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85333 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85334 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
44-85337/85382 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1360/1405
85342 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85345 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85356 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85363 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85364 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85366 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85370 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85371 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85372 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85373 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85374 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85379 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
44-85383 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1406
44-85384 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1407. Upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
44-85385 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1408
44-85386/85398 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1409/1421
85386 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85390 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85392 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85393 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85394 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85395 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85397 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85398 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
44-85399 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1422
44-85400/85424 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1423/1447
85400 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85402 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85405 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85406 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85410 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85411 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
85414 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85416 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85418 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85423 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85424 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
44-85425 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1448
44-85426/85432 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1449/1455
44-85433 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1456
44-85434/85438 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1457/1461
85435 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85437 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
44-85439 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1462
44-85440/85442 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1463/1465
85440 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85441 upgraded to F-80C-11-LO
85442 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
44-85443 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1466
44-85444 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1467
44-85445 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1468
44-85446 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1469
modified as F-80C-11-LO
44-85447 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1470
44-85448 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1471. Modified as RF-80A-15-LO
44-85449 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1472
44-85450 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1473. Modified as F-80C-11-LO
44-85451 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1474
44-85452 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1475
44-85453 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1476
44-85454 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1477
44-85455 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1478
44-85456 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1479. Modified as F-80C-11-LO
44-85457 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1480
44-85458 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1481
44-85459 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1482
44-85460 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1483
44-85461 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1484
44-85462 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1485
44-85463 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1486
44-85464 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1487. Modified as RF-80A-15-LO
44-85465 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1488
44-85466 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1489.. Modified as RF-80A-15-LO
44-85467 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1490
44-85468 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1491. Modified as F-80C-11-LO
44-85469 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1492
44-85470 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1493
44-85471 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1494
44-85472 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1495
44-85473 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1496
44-85474 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1497
44-85475 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1498
44-85476 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1499. Modified as RF-80A-15-LO
44-85477 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1500
44-85478 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1501
44-85479 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1502
44-85480 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1503. Modified as F-80C-11-LO
44-85481 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1504
44-85482 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1505. Modified as F-80C-11-LO
44-85483 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1506
44-85484 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1507
44-85485 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1508
44-85486 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1509. Modified as F-80C-11-LO
44-85487 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1510
44-85488 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1511
44-85489 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1512
44-85490 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1513. Modified as F-80C-11-LO
44-85491 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1514
45-8301 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1515
45-8302 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1516
45-8303 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1517
45-8304 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1518
45-8305 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1519. Modified as F-80C-11-LO
45-8306 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1520
45-8307 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1521
Modified as F-80C-11-LO
45-8308 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1522
45-8309 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1523
45-8310 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1524
45-8311 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1525
45-8312 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1526
45-8313 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1527
45-8314 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1528
45-8315/8363 Lockheed P-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1529/1577
8315 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8319 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8324 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8325 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8327 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8330 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8331 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8334 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8335 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8337 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8346 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8347 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8348 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8350 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8351 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8354 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8357 modified as F-80C-11-LO. Now on display at Robins
AFB, GA.
8358 modified as F-80C-11-LO
8359 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8362 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8363 modified as F-80C-11-LO
45-8364/8477 Lockheed FP-80A-5-LO Shooting Star
c/n 080-1578/1691
8372/8375 upgraded to RF-80C-11-LO
8383 upgraded to RF-80C-11-LO
8406 modified as RF-80A-15-LO
8421 upgraded to RF-80C-11-LO

Sources:

  1. War Planes of the Second World War, Fighters, Volume Four, William Green, Doubleday, 1964.

  2. The American Fighter, Enzo Anguluci and Peter Bowers, Orion Books, 1987.

  3. United States Military Aircraft since 1909, Gordon Swanborough and Peter M. Bowers, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989.

  4. Fighters of the United States Air Force, Robert F. Dorr and David Donald, Temple Press Aerospace, 1990.

  5. American Combat Planes, Ray Wagner, Third Enlarged Edition, Doubleday, 1982.

  6. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913, Rene J. Francillon, Naval Institute Press, 1987.

  7. Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star Variant Briefing, Robert F. Dorr, Wings of Fame, Volume 11, 1998.