THE UFO EVIDENCE, published by the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, Copyright 1964
In an article for Yale Scientific magazine, April 1963, Dr. J. Allen Hynek (Chief scientific consultant to the Air Force on UFOS) said: ". there are more reports per year now than there were in the early years of the 'flying saucer era'... [UFO reports] have been coming to the Air Force at the rate of better than one a day over the past fifteen years. - . the daily press no longer carries such reports, except perhaps as fillers, because monotonously repeated items do not constitute news. But it is just this repetition that is of potential scientific interest." Dr. Hynek added that the intelligence of the UFO witnesses has been "at least average," often "decidedly above average," and sometimes "embarrassingly above average."
There are basically two explanations for the consistent, world wide reporting of UFOs every year: (1) widespread and presently unaccountable delusion on a scale so vast that it should be, in itself, a matter of urgent scientific study; (2) people are seeing maneuvering, apparently controlled objects in the atmosphere.
Of the two hypotheses, the second appears to be more reasonable and it is solidly grounded in empirical observations. It is also borne out, in enough cases to warrant far more scientific investigation , by instruments. [Section VIII]. However, the basic problem is to determine as conclusively as possible which hypothesis is correct. For obvious reasons, verification of the second hypothesis could be one of the most important discoveries of all time.
This report is an attempt to clarify the reliable evidence of UFOs, and to remove the fog of mysticism and crackpotism which has helped to obscure the real issues. These issues are (1) the factual evidence for UFOs and its interpretation; (2) official secrecy and its effect on efforts to arrive at truth.
Under no conditions is this report, or any part of it, to be considered an endorsement, acceptance or other recognition of any claims and beliefs of a philosophical, religious or spiritual nature. Diverse beliefs in these areas are being expounded by many cults, including individuals who use the UFO subject for the purpose of self-enrichment at the expense of an ill- informed public.
This report presents documented facts on the physical aspects of UFOs, which we believe should be investigated scientifically. If our hypotheses are correct they stand independently of, and do not prove, unsubstantiated tales of rides in "flying saucers." Our investigations have found no evidence to support these claims, but considerable evidence of fraud. This does not mean that we believe a meeting with space men is impossible. It merely means that the public is being misled by some unscrupulous individuals making these claims, whose false stories are beclouding serious evidence.
NICAP and its Policies
NICAP is a non-profit organization incorporated in the District of Columbia (1956). Our main goals and purposes are scientific investigation and research of reported unidentified flying objects, and encouragement of full reporting to the public by responsible authorities of all information which the government has accumulated on this subject. The U.S. Air Force is charged with the official investigation of UFOs, but has practiced an intolerable degree of secrecy keeping the public in the dark about the amount and possible significance of UFO evidence. [Section IX]. There fore, we have urged Congressional hearings to help clarify the evidence and encourage a full scientific review, with the public being kept fully informed.
NICAP policy is set by a Board of Governors [see inside front cover] and carried out by the executive staff. Investigations are carried out by Subcommittees (field units) of specially trained and equipped personnel. Affiliates in four states also assist with investigations, and public relations work. Panels of Special Advisers assist with evaluations of data. The executive staff are the only salaried employees.
NICAP is supported by membership fees and donations. (Associate Membership is $5.00, covering six issues of the member ship bulletin, The UFO Investigator, published approximately bi monthly). Members assist the investigation, on their own in initiative, by submitting newspaper clippings, first-hand reports, and other leads to information. The current membership is approximately 5000, covering all 50 states and about 25 foreign countries. A Panel of Foreign Advisers (including lawyers, engineers, and other professionals) aids in data gathering on a world-wide basis.
NICAP has a secondary interest in all aerial phenomena, and has contributed to scientific studies of meteors and ice-falls. Data has been furnished to the American Meteor Society, various college and university departments, individual scientists, and to many hundreds of students at all levels. A recently formed NICAP Youth Council is encouraging young people to pursue a scientific interest in UFOs, aerial phenomena, and space travel.
Various beliefs and attitudes have been attributed to NICAP erroneously by some of our opponents in the past several years: That we are engaged in a vendetta against the Air Force for purposes of sensationalism; that we accuse the Air Force of being involved in a vast conspiracy (sometimes, it is said , on an international scale) to suppress from the public proof of the reality of extraterrestrial visitations, etc. These are irresponsible distortions of our views.
We are presenting serious, documented facts as evidence of an important phenomenon, the reality of which is denied by the Air Force. We are dissenting from the official (Air Force) position.
A phrase coined by the NICAP Director--' 'The Silence Group"-- has been misused by people on both sides of the issue. The term was used to apply to one faction within the Air Force which favors suppression of UFO information from the public. This view was supported in a book by Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, chief of the Air Force UFO project, who similarly described a continuing struggle between two factions within the Air Force- -one of which favored complete secrecy. The question of whether the Air Force is suppressing information about UFOs does not rest on a conspiratorial view of history. [Section IX]
We have no quarrel with the Air Force and its important mission of national defense. Our criticisms are directed entirely at its allegedly scientific investigation of UFOs and public information policies on the same subject. If the United States Marine Corps were responsible for the UFO investigation, and handled it in the same manner, we would criticize its policies on the subject for the very same reasons.
It is claimed that the reality of UFOs has been disproved, but we are asked to accept this conclusion on authority alone without access to the data which would allow independent evaluation by the scientific community. We are asked to accept this conclusion in the face of evidence, such as contained in this report, which has often been "explained" in strange ways. [Section IX].
Merely on the basis of examining the explanations advanced by the Air Force for specific cases, one can find substantial reason to question the scientific adequacy of the official investigation. This has nothing to do with the motivation of the investigators, who no doubt are perfectly honest and sincere.
At the heart of the matter is the effect of an authoritarian military system on scientific investigation. Science requires free and open discourse among scientists, individual initiative, and an atmosphere of inquiry not restricted by arbitrary regulations.
Virtually all of the Air Force analyses have been conducted in secrecy,
affording the scientific community as a whole no opportunity to cross-check
and review the methods and reasoning used. Only end results have been released
to the public, and often (without explanation) these have been counter-to-fact.
Statement by NICAP Board of Governors
"Although a large percentage of reported UFOs can be explained in terms of conventional objects and events, the residual unexplained cases constitute a separate and important problem. (The word "UFO" hereafter refers to the residual cases). These UFOs have proved to be a consistent phenomenon, with significant new reports made each year. A large number of the reports come from reputable and competent observers, honest and intelligent citizens.
"Given the evidence in this report, it is a reasonable hypothesis that the unexplained UFOs are:
"To date serious scientific attention to UFOs has been limited by several factors including:
"We believe the following steps should be taken to rectify an unsatisfactory situation:
(1) The evidence in Air Force files (after deletion of legitimate security information such as data concerning the capabilities of radar) should be made freely available to any interested citizens.
(2) There should be a Congressional inquiry into the Air Force's Project Blue Book to establish, a. the amount and kind of UFO information in the files, and whether all significant non-security data has been made public; b. the scientific adequacy of the investigation (whether there has been a consistently objective, scientific study of the evidence, or whether it has been erratic and influenced negatively by high-level policy decisions, lack of funds, or other factors).
"The foremost question which remains is: What are the UFOs? The importance of these objects, if the above hypothesis is correct, is readily apparent. In order to settle this question, we strongly recommend that a much larger scale and more thorough scientific investigation be undertaken."
Joining in these conclusions are NICAP Board Members:
Rev. Albert H. Baller, Congregational Minister, Clinton, Mass.
In a separate statement, Dr. Charles P. Olivier (President of the American Meteor Society), Narberth, Pa., reiterated his reasons for serving on the Board of Governors. Dr. Olivier does not take a position about the nature of UFOs, and his prime reason for supporting NICAP is to help dispel secrecy and en courage scientific investigation of the phenomenon:
"In serving as a NICAP Board Member, my only purpose is to help in forcing further scientific investigation. UFOs have not been fully studied scientifically due to suppression of pertinent data and subjecting reports of trained and reputable people to ridicule. It is possible UFOs might eventually have serious effects upon our planet and its inhabitants, either for good or ill. I have no personal theory to advance or refute. In view of the importance of the subject, no matter what the outcome, I would be glad to see a very full inquiry, and the old secrecy fully removed. What I want is the whole truth brought out. I do not know what it is."
In preparing this report, it has been our aim to establish the facts to the best of our ability, and to present them for study. In so doing, we hope to encourage a more careful, detached examination of detailed specific cases. It will be found that some explanations which have been advanced for specific cases have been superficial, often glossing over details which contradict the explanation. Detailed interpretation of specific cases is difficult, and often depends on one or two facts. For anyone wishing to examine
divergent interpretations of some of the cases in this report, we suggest two books which present the skeptical position:
Flying Saucers and the U.S Air Force, Lt, Col, Lawrence J. Tacker, (Van Nostrand, 1960)
The World of Flying Saucers, Dr. Donald H. Menzel, (Doubleday, 1963).
Both books argue that UFOs have been adequately investigated, and that there is no evidence indicating they are anything other than misidentified conventional objects or phenomena.
This report contains a total of 746 UFO sightings. The main chronology [Section XI] lists 575 cases, with cross-references. (Statistics based on the main chronology are reported in Section XII) The witnesses in 50% of these cases were trained or experienced observers. An additional 171 cases are included in separate chronologies [Section XII] which show the major concentrations of UFO sightings.
The reports come from 46 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Canada, Mexico and Central America, 6 South American countries, 10 European countries, 4 African countries, 5 Asian countries, Australia and New Zealand, major oceans and numerous islands.
States with the highest frequency of sightings, as indicated by the selective process used, were: (1) California; (2) Ohio; (3) New Mexico; (4) Florida; (5) Illinois.
Other countries: (1) England; (2) France; (3) Canada; (4) Japan; (5) Brazil.
Of the 575 cases, two UFOs were observed in 41 cases, three UFOs in 30
cases, more than three UFOs in 81 cases. The remainder were observations of
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