The history of science has shown that it is the things
that don't fit, the apparent exceptions to the rule,
that signal potential breakthroughs in our concept
of the world about us.

 - J. Allen Hyneck



Effects of  UFOs upon the principal sensory organs have been explored elsewhere. It was found, in brief, that the visual experience involved images of metallic vehicles, including various structural details, which were sometimes surrounded by vivid displays in brilliant colors or dazzling halos. A study of their noises disclosed several distinct types and suggested the artificial stimulation of auditory sensations within the head. Finally, several unique odors noticed in the vicinity of UFOs were traced to specific chemical compounds that are formed in the atmosphere under the stimulus of radiant energy that is emitted by UFOs. Reception of signals by the eyes, ears, and nose have been accounted for, yet there remains a variety of ways in which the body responds to UFOs at short range.

Primary Symptoms

A sensation of body heating during a close encounter is a common complaint. A huge craft, 70
meters long, flew within 30 meters of two sheriffs in Texas causing a heat wave. (1) Six teenagers in Ohio experienced the same reaction as a disc-shaped


machine hovered overhead.  (2) The intensity of this effect is, of course, variable and it may reach
frightful proportions. Near the Capitan Curbelo Naval Air Station in Uruguay an experienced pilot
flew his light plane to within 700 meters of a brilliant object shaped like a "musical top" that had come to a dead stop directly ahead on his flight path. "I saw that (the UFO) rocked twice in a balancing motion. Then it took off in the direction of the sea at a fantastic speed. It left a little trail in the form of water vapor....The temperature was greatly increased, so much that I had to open the windows and door of the plane, and take off my field jacket. I almost fainted."  (3) A stronger heat wave in the cockpit of an F94 jet during a UFO chase became so unbearable that the pilot and his crewman had to bail out. The plane crashed in Walesville, New York, tragically killing four people and injuring others. (4) Actual burns of first and second degree, usually on the face and hands, have been the reward of unwary people who approached UFOs too closely or of others innocently minding their own business when one flew past at very close range. (5)

Sometimes the witnesses are temporarily paralyzed while the UFO is nearby, usually within 50 to
150 meters. (6) A farmer in San Pietro, Italy, became paralyzed when he approached to within 10
meters of a UFO that had landed in the village square.  (7) Three figures moving around a landed UFO at Stratford-on-Avon held the attention of a man who could not move until they boarded the craft and flew away. (8)  In at least seven other instances, witnesses were immobilized during the encounter, but their involuntary body functions, such as breathing, heart beat, and vision, were unimpaired. (9) Return to normalcy was usually immediate when the UFO left, but it took about 20 minutes for one victim to regain his muscular coordination. (10) Approximately the same amount of time was required by a French farmer to recover, although his paralysis was probably induced by some kind of a weapon. (11)

Loss of consciousness is also relatively frequent, being reported as either an isolated symptom or in association with other symptoms. (12) Quite significantly, about half of the people who were either paralyzed or who had lost consciousness also de


scribed feeling a prickling sensation or an electrical shock. As a man in Massachusetts explained,
"My mind was not at all affected. I just could not move, felt like shock and numbness." (13)

Because of the prominent association between the other physiological effects and the feeling of
electrical shock, one is inclined to ascribe the cause of the symptoms to some electrical phenomenon. That temptation becomes overwhelming when a tabulation of the cases reveals that, in nearly every instance of bodily heating, paralysis, loss of consciousness, or electrical shock, automobile engines were also stopped or began to misfire. In two instances, headlamps also went out (14) This definite correlation between the effects upon the human body and upon electrical circuits clearly points to electromagnetic energy as the causative agent, a relationship that has long been suspected. (15) "Loud humming" and "beeping," whose origin was probably electromagnetic, were also heard just prior to paralysis and unconsciousness. (16) Obviously the sounds must precede or follow the loss of consciousness, since by definition, an unconscious person is oblivious to external stimuli. At any rate, the instant- by-instant sequence of events in these sightings should be examined with care. Painful prickling like an electrical shock were felt by a motorist in France as his child, also riding in the car, began to cry. The pain increased, then the engine failed and the lights went out. (17) In other words, the electrical shock gradually increased up to the point that the responsible agent disrupted the electrical circuits of the car. Had the increase continued further, one suspects that the witness may have become paralyzed. While this instance stands alone, it does suggest that the prickling sensation is an early manifestation of the radiant energy, followed by electrical interference and, finally, paralysis or unconsciousness. Probably the most sensitive response to the radiation is auditory, for, it may be recalled, the Hills first heard a beeping sound and then felt the prickling sensation. (18) Both the physiological and physical responses seem to be related to a flight maneuver of the UFOs. In two cases, conditions were normal until the


UFOs began to rise at which time the lights of one car went out. (19) and the engine of the other failed. (20) In still another case, prickling and paralysis occurred at the same time that the engine slowed down when a nearby UFO rose off the ground. (21) The strength of the causative agent, known to be ineffective at great distance, seems to depend upon the proximity of the UFO and appears to be strongest when the UFOs apply a burst of power at take-off.

A considerable variety of other physiological effects have also been noted in isolated instances. These include amnesia, headache, eye pain, loss of vision, nausea, and vomiting. Specific instances of these ailments will be taken up after some insights are developed concerning the primary symptoms.

Several factors point directly toward microwave energy as being responsible for the physiological effects. Such energy is known to be radiated from UFOs. It is the primary candidate for disrupting electrical circuits, and the failure of headlights and engines correlates well with heating of the body, electrical shock, paralysis, and loss of consciousness, all of which are induced by UFOs from some distance. The search for an understanding of these physiological effects should begin with an examination of related physical and biological data. Further searching should not be required if the technology of microwaves and the life processes together reveal specific mechanisms that can duplicate the observations.


Diathermy is a medical process for applying heat to tissues deep within the human body. It is usually accomplished by placing the part to be treated between suitably contoured electrodes that are padded with towels. An alternating potential applied to the plates causes them to act as a condenser in which the human tissues are the dielectric. Alternating electrical fields between the plates, completely penetrating the treated part, agitate molecules in the tissue and generate the desired heat. An antenna, substituted for


the plates at microwave frequencies, beams electromagnetic radiation into the patient with the same penetrative result. A commercial machine for microwave diathermy operates with an output power of 100 watts at 2,450 MHz. (22) The penetration is excellent at that frequency, although it diminishes at higher frequencies, tending to concentrate the absorbed energy into a shallow layer near the skin. (23) Some potential danger attends the use of microwaves on people because the human body has heat receptors only on the skin. Overheating, therefore, might occur in the deeper tissues without the forewarning of pain, especially in portions not cooled by freely flowing blood, as in bone marrow and the eyes. In the previous discussion of UFO plasmas, the gases were estimated to have temperatures in the range of roughly 2000 to 4000F. Such hot gases will radiate energy over a wide spectrum that includes the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet. Heating of the skin and even serious burns could be produced by the infrared rays, depending upon their intensity and the duration of exposure. Typical sunburns could be produced by the ultraviolet rays. As both types of radiation are blocked by clothing, they would cause localized effects upon the bare skin of the face and hands. The more generalized experience of "heat waves" that force people to remove clothing and to jump out of airplanes must have a different origin. Absorption of high-frequency radiation with the generation of heat as in microwave diathermy, is a likely candidate.


Control of the human body is the task of the central nervous system. It receives information on the circumstances outside the body from the senses and status reports on internal conditions such as the muscular needs for oxygen. This data is incorporated into the general experience and conscious desires of the individual. Two major sets of signals are then sent out along nerves to the muscles and glands to implement a response that is appropriate to the conditions prevailing at that instant. This process is


continuous. Of primary concern at present are the functional properties of nerve fibers. In some ways these fibers resemble insulated electrical wires. A central core of protoplasmic material, a
moderately good conductor of electricity, is surrounded by a sheath of membrane of a fatty
substance that is a moderately good insulator. Orders to outlying muscles, sent by the central nervous system, travel along these fibers as a wave of electrical potential. The similarity to electrical wires cannot be carried very far, however, fibers have certain unique properties. The traveling pulse, known as an action potential, always has the same intensity in a particular fiber. At any point along the fiber, it is either present or it is not; it never shows up only partially or at a potential above the norm. Energy for transmission of this signal derives from the fiber itself, not from some driving force at the input end. The sheath is interrupted at intervals of about 1 millimeter, called Ranvier nodes, and the transmission energy is supplied by the passage of certain ions through the membranes in these short segments. The width of the pulse is about 1 millisecond and it travels at various speeds, depending upon the size of the fiber, typically on the order of 10 meters per second. Measurements of electrical potentials inside the sheath show that a fiber at rest is about 0.07 volts negative compared to the external solution. An action potential traveling down the fiber has a positive amplitude of about 0.10 to 0.12 volts. Therefore, at the moment the action potential occupies a position in the fiber, its interior experiences a momentary swing that is about 0.04 volts positive compared to the outside. Experimental electrodes implanted in the fiber at any location can trigger the standard pulse by impressing a potential difference across the membrane of about 0.02 volts or greater. Pulses then travel outward in both directions along the fiber, although they would normally travel in only one direction. After the pulse has been passed through one segment of the fiber, a finite time is required for that segment to return to normal. During the recovery period, it is completely incapable of transmitting another pulse. For about one millisecond the fiber cannot be stimulated at all; for roughly another


millisecond it can, but only by a stimulus stronger than usual. (24) If a stimulus below the threshold of 0.02 volts is followed by another within about 2 milliseconds, then the second one may evoke a response even though it too is weaker than the threshold. The first stimulus opens the gate, so to speak, for the next ones. (25)

If microwave radiation were capable of providing the requisite stimulus, then an action potential
would be induced. It has been found, in fact, that microwave radiation can create the necessary
electrical tension across the membrane. By inserting miniature electrodes into nerve fibers, the
potential difference between the inside and the outside can be measured. Irradiation by microwaves induces potentials that are typically in the millivolt range, but are sometimes as high as 0.10 volt, five times stronger than the threshold value of 0.02 volt. (26) As action potentials triggered by this mechanism would be identical in every respect to those that are sent out by the central nervous system, there would be no way in which the receptors could detect them to be frauds. Muscular response would be absolutely dictated by such artificially produced stimuli.

Traveling along a nerve at 10 meters per second, the pulse would progress a distance of 1 cm in 1
millisecond. As it takes about that long for the sheath to recover, the traveling pulse carries with it a zone of desensitized fiber about 1 cm in length, like the wake of a motorboat. The zone would
actually be about twice that long since as the fibers gradually return to normal within about 1
millisecond after the first millisecond period when they are absolutely refractive. Bear in mind that this
dead zone does not remain stationary, but moves along the nerve immediately behind the action
potential with the same speed.

Now consider the chain of events that would occur if a burst of microwave radiation should stimulate the nerve fiber at several locations. Action potentials would propagate away from the sites of origin in both directions. From neighboring sites, therefore, two pulses traveling toward one another must collide. Up to the instant of contact, the two pulses are being followed by their respective wakes of desensitized fiber. They cannot interpen-


etrate or continue traveling in their original directions because the dead zone of the other is not
capable of furnishing the propagation. For the same reason, they cannot be reflected back along their course. Upon colliding, they must both be annihilated. The last indication of their existence would be the electrical change in the small segment where they met. Centered upon the site of their disappearance would be a section of the nerve about 2 cm long that would remain dormant for about 1 millisecond. Several such events happening at the same time would take a sizeable fraction of the nerve out of service momentarily. Should a second burst of microwave energy inundate the nerve while several sections are still dormant, more action potentials will be stimulated in those normal portions between the dormant zones that have recovered from the passage of the last pulse. Then the process leading to annihilation of contra-traveling pulses simply starts again. It is most interesting to explore the conditions that might be established in the nerve by microwave energy that is itself being pulsed about 500 times per second. First of all, the effective threshold for stimulation would be lowered by the "gate effect" and action potentials could be induced more readily. The individual bursts of microwave energy would arrive at intervals of 2 milliseconds, which is approximately the time that the dead zones persist at the points of annihilation. Action potentials would be stimulated only in the responsive sections, which immediately thereafter would become insensitive. Meanwhile, previously exhausted sections would recover and become active again, just in time to be stimulated by the next burst of microwaves. One can envision a state of quasi-equilibrium in which a chain of sections, alternately insensitive and responsive, are switching their roles approximately 500 times per second. At all times, about half the nerve would be completely incapable of transmitting any signal.

Next consider the fate of legitimate impulses issued by the brain. They would obviously get wiped out upon meeting artificially induced pulses that were traveling the wrong way. They would disappear in the annihilation process- a most efficient means of disposing of signals that were intended for control of the


muscles. As shown before, a series of pulses cannot be closer together in the nerve than the length of the dead zone. This restriction establishes an absolute upper limit to the message handling capacity of the nerve. For a nerve having a propagation speed of 10 meters per second, as was assumed for the previous discussion, the dead zone is about 1 cm long. Therefore, the absolute upper limit of signal density occurs when they are 1 cm apart. At their common velocity, they would pass a given point at the rate of one every millisecond, or 1,000 of them in 1 sec. But because the nerve membrane requires an additional amount of time to recover, the spacing will be about 2 cm and that figure would be cut in half. The maximum rate of propagation in this nerve is estimated to be roughly 500 pulses per second. The behavior of this fiber under a steady, prolonged stimulus should reveal the correct value. Consider an electrical potential greater than the threshold to be applied and maintained across the sheath. It would respond by initiating an action potential and would then enter its refractory period. As soon as it recovers, it again experiences the stimulus and responds, and so on. The rate at which the action potentials are triggered in this experiment is the maximum propagation rate for that nerve. It has been found in the laboratory that such a sustained stimulus causes the emission of a train of pulses, usually 4 or 5 with gradually increased spacing, in about 100 milliseconds. (27) Apparently the capacity of the sheath to continue at its maximum transmission rate is severely limited, a point which cannot be pursued further without access to the original laboratory reports. These findings are significant to the annihilation of the action potentials originating in the brain. Such pulses may have to travel as far as 1 meter to contract a leg muscle, a journey that would take about 0.1 sec. A microwave field pulsed very slowly would leave large gaps of time during which muscular coordination would be normal, although sporadic disruption would occur. Higher pulse rates would increase the difficulty of control. At frequencies equal to, or greater than the maximum rate that the signals can be sent through the nerve, pulses from the brain would have no chance of getting through.


At the muscle end of the motor nerve, impulses are delivered to the receptors at the maximum rate. A single impulse causes a muscle fiber to contract for a finite period, say, 0.01 sec. If another pulse arrives during that period, the muscle is again stimulated to contract before having an opportunity to relax. Hence, a rapid series of such pulses will hold the muscle in a state of sustained contraction. A difficulty arises here, however. All skeletal muscles occur in pair-sets. Any kind of bodily motion, which is governed by one set of muscles can be compensated by another motion governed by the opposite set. A volitional action is accomplished by contracting the appropriate set of muscles while inhibiting their counterparts, an enormously complex obligation of the central nervous system. As microwaves cannot make such distinctions, all the motor nerves are stimulated indiscriminately. The net result is obvious: sets of muscles contract in opposition to each other and the body freezes into rigid immobility.

A mechanism to explain the typical UFO paralysis thus emerges. A pulsed microwave field emitted by the UFO weakens the threshold and stimulates action potentials in the motor nerves. Half of these travel the wrong way and nullify the signals issued by the brain. The witness suddenly becomes paralyzed, in whatever position he held at the time, by a stream of fraudulent pulses causing the skeletal muscles to work against each other. When the field intensity falls too low, everything usually returns to normal. As an Australian youth said after two minutes in that condition, he was "merely cognizant of things as they were without being able to react." (28) The microwaves apparently stimulate only the nerves to the voluntary muscles without producing a comparable effect upon the nerves to the involuntary body functions, including muscles and glands. Sensory channels also seem to be immune from influence, except perhaps the auditory nerve. How the excitation process can be so selective is not at all clear. It is known that nerve fibers of small diameter have higher thresholds than larger ones. (29) Perhaps the answer is very simple-the larger nerves controlling voluntary actions are easier


to stimulate. Because of health hazards, humans have not been exposed to high-intensity microwave fields, and there is no laboratory indication of a paralyzing effect.

Electrical Shock

As the power output of many large radars has increased enormously in the last two decades, some special precautions have been taken. Several costly installations were constructed to detect missiles over the horizon that might be launched toward the United States. This system provides about 15 minutes warning time for retaliatory action. Potential exposure of 20 times the allowable flux of microwave energy at these sites prohibits the performance of routine maintenance while the radars are in operation. As it is unthinkable to shut down periodically for any purpose, special protective clothing for the technicians had to be developed. These suits cover the entire body, head, face, hands and feet. They are made from a metallized nylon to reflect electromagnetic energy away from the wearer. A special design assures electrical continuity across the seams. As electrical fields of thousand of volts per meter were also predicated, the suits have an exterior insulating layer of neoprene-coated nylon. (30) This layer prevents surges of current through the conducting layer that would otherwise be produced if a workman touched two metal pipes having different electrical potentials. In an environment of this nature, but of lesser intensity, an unprotected worker or a UFO witness might well experience an electrical shock.

Because microwave fields induce currents in electrical conductors, the military forces must take further precautions. They must make sure that ordnance is not accidentally detonated by stray radiation. This problem is most severe where ordnance must be handled close to powerful radar sets. On Navy ships, for example, the operational use of radar might have to be restricted. Primary research on this problem is conducted by the Electromagnetic Hazards Division of the Naval Weapons Laboratory in Dahlgren, Virginia. (31) In view of the importance of radiation-


induced currents in the military experience, one would certainly anticipate an electrical effect upon the human body while exposed to microwaves. As moist skin is a good conductor and well furnished with sensory receptors, a prickling sensation would be quite expectable.

Loss of Consciousness

One component of the central nervous system regulates such body functions as sleep, temperature, blood pressure, other autonomic functions, and the emotional states. The nature of this control mechanism is fundamentally chemical; that is, the organ controls the production of small amounts of powerful agents such as adrenaline and serotonin. Experiments in 1952 showed that electrical stimulation of the thalamus increased the production of serotonin. (32) A similar electrical stimulation induced by microwaves could have the same result, that is, production of  sleep-inducing chemicals.

Secondary Symptoms

Among the less frequent but notable ailments following close exposure to UFOs is the common headache. Two UFOs that landed in Brazil discharged three small beings from one and two from the other. These beings stood around talking for about 5 minutes before conducting a thorough inspection of both craft. All the while, they were being watched by a 15-year-old boy, whose companions were up ahead of him en route to a movie. After the UFO took off, the boy suddenly suffered violent headaches. As standard medication gave no relief for 5 days, he was taken to a doctor by his father. (33) In another situation, a bright disc-shaped craft, producing a high-pitched sound, came down near Rio de Janeiro and hovered, while three of its occupants walked nearby. One of the witnesses later suffered severe headaches. (34) Not only are the headaches clearly associated with the sightings, but in these two cases, the headaches began after


the UFOs had left, a most puzzling detail. Whether the radiation received during the observation had anything to do with this symptom is doubtful, but it should be noted for the record that headaches are sometimes produced by microwaves. A study was conducted in 1943 involving 45 men with histories of exposure to low levels of microwave radiation spanning periods of 2 months to 9 years. "Several of these men reported frontal headaches and a flushed heating sensation when standing within 3 ft of a generating antenna." (35)  The abbreviated source material unfortunately does not indicate the strength of the beam or whether the subjects were exposed directly to it. Also, these histories of exposure to microwaves are not typical of UFO witnesses. But the important aspect is that headaches were experienced and, apparently, only while the subjects were being irradiated. Because of the gross disparity in the time factors here, the cause for headaches associated with UFOs is lacking an explanation.

On rare occasions, the witnesses describe a loss of vision, either total or partial, resulting in cloudy or hazy images. A typical example involved a 37-year-old man in Pennsylvania who saw a large disc fly in front of the moon. Twenty minutes later both eyes became pained and his vision hazy. He gradually lost vision in both eyes; within several days, it returned to normal. His entire body was "sunburned." A doctor who examined him attributed the effects to ultraviolet exposure. (36) That diagnosis may well be correct, since unique blue light on or about the UFO was reportedly very intense for about 3 seconds at the end of the sighting. Consider, however, the oddity that the skin irritation was not confined to exposed portions of the body. As the witness had just put his car in the garage, according to the report, it may be presumed that he was normally attired. His clothing should have protected most of the body, since ultraviolet rays are easily stopped by a cotton shirt. Whatever troubled his eyes also penetrated his clothing. Recall that the propulsion system of UFOs involves the emission of microwave energy that, on occasion, excites the xenon molecules in the atmosphere to emit their characteristic bright blue. Microwaves pass through clothing


without significant loss, but at frequencies used in diathermy they also penetrate deeply into the human body. At somewhat higher frequencies, above 3,000 MHz, tissue penetration is greatly abated and nearly half of the impinging energy is absorbed on the skin. Absorption of microwave energy in the skin produces conditions that are indistinguishable from ordinary sunburn arising from an excess of ultraviolet rays. In all probability, this witness suffered a flash burn on the retina and "sunburn" over his entire body by a 3-second exposure to microwaves at a frequency greater than 3,000 MHz.

The eyes are especially sensitive to microwaves, whose energy is readily absorbed by the internal fluid, the aqueous humor. In addition, when wavelengths of the radiation are approximately the same dimension as the eyeball the conditions for a tuned cavity prevail in which absorption is further enhanced. Absorbed energy raises the eye temperature, a very dangerous condition even for small increases that cannot be felt. As the lens is very intolerant of stress, the abnormal temperature can generate cataracts. Furthermore, microwaves produce a direct effect upon the lens involving chemical changes resulting in the formation of cataracts. (37) For these reasons, the allowable exposure to the eyes is severely limited and eye protection is a must. Cataracts produced by microwaves do not normally progress to total blindness, and they gradually disappear. That such lenticular opacity, or cloudiness of the aqueous humor, has been induced by UFOs seems fairly clear. A doctor examining one witness with hazy vision "could not see the retina," presumably because of opacity of the lens or eye fluid. (38)

After stopping the car of an Australian businessman, a mushroom shaped UFO aimed a strong beam of light toward him. He later found himself driving down the road, unable to remember starting the car.(39) He had suffered amnesia covering a brief span of time, and the reported beam of light indicates a purposeful act by the UFO occupants. In a previous chapter, review of two other instances of memory lapse showed deliberate action also. Amnesia, however, appears to be rare and not merely


a consequence of being too close to a UFO.

Sighting a UFO is sometimes quite a shock to the witness. Anything so completely out of the ordinary could overwhelm a person's effort to adjust to his surroundings. The most sturdy personality might have some difficulty, and the experience could prove to be too stunning for an individual whose struggle with life has left little reserve strength. In order to escape from the anxiety of the situation, some witnesses may subconsciously respond hysterically, they may experience unusual sensations of vision, hearing, taste, or smell, their body might suddenly go rigid for a moment, waves of nausea could trouble them for days; or their subsequent behavior patterns may be completely out of character. These reactions to stress, being of purely psychological origin, can obviously mimic some of the physiological responses that have been described above. It would be moderately easy to confuse some of the emotional and physiological effects. The error in either direction would be serious, namely, falsely ascribing a physiological cause to a purely emotional reaction, or inadvertently overlooking a valid physiological explanation. Some protection against the latter pitfall is afforded by automobile engines and radios that are not inclined to be neurotic. Their malfunctions require a specific, physical agency. When that agency is identified and it produces a physiological response in the witness, a psychological explanation is not required and, indeed, is superfluous.

Scientific Uncertainty

In the face of substantial evidence to the contrary, most American researchers cling to the notion that absorption of microwaves in the human body produces nothing but heat. Varied biological changes, they contend, are traceable to a rise in temperature. The concept of a direct biochemical effect is rejected with several arguments. The radiation dosage, for example, cannot be reliably reported because there are no generally accepted standards of instrumentation. Or, perhaps, the possibility of a purely thermal


response in the tissues has not been disproven. A recent review article points out that "There are many areas in which presently available data are questionable, contradictory, or inapplicable." (40) Microwave research in the United States certainly suffers more confusion than becomes a scientific discipline. On the international scene, the situation is no better. A summary of Soviet views indicates, among other things contradicting the American position, that "At the present time, the opinion of most Soviet investigators is that microwaves: ....affect the structure and chemical reactivity of neutral cells." (41) Russian research purports to demonstrate sub-threshold effects, that is, irreversible chemical changes that are produced at levels below the onset of any thermal responses. Furthermore, these changes are believed to be cumulative. Without ever being exposed to levels of radiation causing damage by heat, according to these views, a worker exposed repeatedly to low-level microwaves at his job might suffer serious injury over a period of time. These beliefs are reflected in the safety standards that have been adopted; permissible limits of exposure in Russia are 1,000 times more conservative than in the United States. (42) This disparity persists because the methods, rationale, and data of the Soviet scientists appear to be obscure and nebulous to the Americans. At any rate, most of the symptoms produced by UFOs, being inadmissible to American science, are thoroughly compatible with the Russian findings.

One Russian conclusion that is especially vague to Americans is the alleged "asthenia" syndrome, a combination of mental and personality changes. "The symptoms include weakness, fatigability, depression, antisocial tendencies, sense of fear, impairment of memory and general mental function and an inability to make decisions." (43) During the '60s the U.S. Embassy in Moscow was reportedly found to be permeated by abnormal levels of microwave radiation, presumably beamed there to confuse the diplomats and make them more tractable in negotiations. Subsequent experiments on monkeys in the U.S. by the Advanced Research Projects Agency yielded no definite conclusions on the


matter. The Russians may have had this type of plan in mind during the international chess tournament, when the American, Bobby Fischer, was accused of using "electronic devices and chemical substances" to gain an unfair advantage. Concerning the Russian Spassky, his assistant commented that ". . . it is the first time that I observe such unusual slackening of concentration and display of impulsiveness in his playing . . ." A thorough search disclosed no incriminating evidence.

Observers Reactions

Witnesses, who have been exposed to microwave radiation from UFOs should be good candidates for displaying symptoms of the asthenia syndrome propounded by the Russians. An artificial sense of fear, for example, might be experienced when that emotion was inappropriate, or in intensities not warranted by the circumstances. For the most part, distant observations of UFOs are accompanied by entirely normal behavior. Relatives and neighbors are called out of their houses to verify the experience. Police officers and pilots contact others on their radio networks for the same purpose. A motorist may stop to watch the show or drive to another location for an unobstructed view. These patterns would be expected in events that are sometimes so distracting that witnesses forget to use their cameras. Responses at closer range vary greatly, but a few patterns can be discerned. Upon spotting a disc-shaped machine descend and come to rest on its landing gear, a witness might rush toward it for a closer examination, especially when he later affirms that the incident was entirely beyond anything else in his experience. Such behavior, however, is rare. A few people have moved in for a closer look, (44) even to the point of standing immediately adjacent to the UFOs and touching them. (45)  More typical, however, is a negative reaction in which the witness takes refuge in hiding, runs away from the scene, or if in a car, drives away in reckless disregard for traffic laws. People seem to be genuinely afraid of UFOs, but they may only be unnerved by rainbow colors cascading off their edges or


by some other oddity. The imminent landing of a large wheel with flaming openings in front sent two Brazilian workers into hiding. (46)  Two youngsters ran for cover from an object circling overhead that resembled an up-side-down plate. (47)  Two British airmen remained unperturbed while watching a dome-shaped object land behind a hangar, but took to their heels when an opening appeared in the UFO. (48)  Two young New Zealanders also held their ground in the presence of a UFO until a similar opening made them think that it was about to land. (49)  Three hunters, a breed not easily frightened, ran away from a very large, egg-shaped object that they discovered hovering in a Venezuelan forest. (50)  Of course, stronger emotional impact has occurred. A large sphere of orange light so frightened a 16-year-old boy in Indiana that he lost control of his bicycle. (51)  A low-flying object terrified two witnesses in Georgia, who abandoned their bicycles and ran home nearly hysterical. (52)  An Italian was paralyzed with fear by a metallic object, 10 meters in diameter, hovering close to the ground. (53)  As seen in previous sections, however, this last witness may have been paralyzed for physiological, rather than emotional, reasons.

It is necessary here to anticipate the subject matter of two later chapters by summarizing the reactions of witnesses upon confronting strange occupants of UFOs. Unadulterated, bone-rattling fear seems to be found exclusively in this context. Four Canadian children were panic stricken by an extremely tall UFO pilot who held out his hand to them saying something that was unintelligible. (54)  A dark figure the size of a man, with wings like a bat, thoroughly spooked some British teenagers.(55)  A creature emerging from a UFO in Gabon terrified a fisherman who was watching from nearby. (56)  Some small creatures attacking three Argentine students enroute to school threw them into a state of terror. (57)  Several adults and children in Peru panicked at the sight of a very small creature walking the street leaving a luminous trail. (58)  And so on. (59)  It is perfectly normal for people to flee in terror from strange beings, particularly when the people are young, as is most often the case, and when the creatures act in a threatening manner, or actually attack.


While these data carry a modest load of ambiguity, they do not generally sustain the Russian concepts. The level of fear displayed during the encounters with UFOs and their occupants seems to be within normal bounds, although rather high at times. It must be mentioned that the Russian research pertains to repeated exposures to low-level radiation whereas these examples do not.

Unfortunately, this issue cannot be put to rest so neatly, for other sources of information tend to support the opposite conclusion, namely, that abnormal feelings of fear are induced in the witnesses by UFOs at close range. In a series of sightings in New Hampshire, nearly all the witnesses were very frightened. The investigator of these incidents observed that ". . . some people were in actual shock or hysteria as a result of extremely low-level encounters with the objects." (60)  Descriptive terms used by the witnesses emphatically showed their reactions to be very intense and, under the circumstances, probably inappropriate. Despite the absence of any recognized threat to life or limb, witnesses were variously reported to be badly shaken or scared to death. (61)  Emotional experiences, described on two occasions as "shivery feeling" and "funniest feeling through me," may have been artificial or merely the natural accessory to fear. An interesting suggestion of a direct influence by a UFO occurred when a witness panicked while within close range, drove away to report the sighting to the police, and upon regaining composure, returned to the scene for a second look. While these reports are inconclusive on this point, they require that the question of UFO-induced emotional states remain open. It is hoped that further insight may be achieved from independent studies in the future and from the analysis of animal behavior in the following section.

Animals Too

As the higher animals are physiologically very similar to man, a close parallel is expected between their reactions to UFOs and


those of people. Any marked differences would be a clue that beckons for further research into the causes. Source materials for this section are some 200 animal incidents compiled by a British quarterly. (62)

Millions of delicate UFO detectors are already distributed in a world-wide network. Each one is carefully maintained in top condition and monitored round the clock for any response signifying the presence of a UFO. Man's best friend is also his best UFO detector. Very commonly, indeed, the first indication that a UFO is present or approaching is the excited barking of a dog or a whole neighborhood full. Suppose that some random noise sets a dog to barking; others within earshot may take up the call, and presently the whole neighborhood echoes with their racket. This kind of domino effect could be the basis for the area-wide disturbances of dogs near UFOs, although it doesn't seem likely. It is not an ordinary bark that is evoked by UFOs. In the language of the reports, one pooch was howling enough to awaken the dead, (63) one barked furiously, frothing at the mouth, (64) one carried on something terrible, (65) and one made a dreadful noise. (66)  These animals were disturbed in some unique way; they were not just relaying the neighborhood gossip. Because dogs can sense the approach of UFOs before humans, one wonders if the detection is based upon keener hearing, as with the early announcement of an approaching police siren, or if another mechanism is responsible. Dogs dislike UFOS. In fact, they are terrified by them and seek to escape from them. Under circumstances clearly indicating a landed UFO was nearby, a Canadian woman heard knocks at her door. Her dog rushed forward, then suddenly retreated, trembling as if terrified, and retired into a comer. (67) When a man opened a door to investigate the cause of his dog's howling outside, the animal crawled in on its belly in abject terror. The man found a UFO and its pilots outside. (68)  One of several dogs owned by a witness was so terrified that it ran into a barbed wire fence; the others whined while cowering on the ground. (69)  A dog became disturbed in a car when a UFO was first sighted. By the time the driver was flagged down on the highway by the UFO people, the dog was lying in a tight ball under the seat, trembling violently.


He was still cowering there two hours later. (70)  These animals exhibited symptoms of extreme fright. In some of these cases the animals could not see the UFOs. They had never read any science fiction nor been instructed how to act in the presence of a UFO. In other words, their behavior must have been induced by the UFOs. One must face the probability that their response was stimulated by microwaves, namely, a symptom of the asthenia syndrome as reported by Russian scientists. It should be most interesting to discover in the future why this response is seen more clearly in dogs than in people. If microwave radiation were inducing this sense of fear in the dogs, one would expect that a higher intensity might even paralyze them. A Frenchman out hunting with his dog saw two people climbing out of a small UFO on the ground, 40 meters away. He fled, but his dog, running toward the UFO, soon retreated, walking as though he were partially paralyzed. (71)  Perhaps the dog didn't get close enough to become completely paralyzed. An incident which occurred during the evening of October 21, 1963, in Trancas, Argentina is especially significant:

          Three very fierce dogs inside the house, and two dozen fowls outside, were for forty minutes
          cowed and paralyzed by a vivid hot beam of light, varying in color from red to violet, directed
          at the house from one of a number of UFOs nearby. As the revolving beam returned and caught
          the dogs through the windows, they became apathetic and silent, recovering slightly in the
          intervals. (72)

Both a man and his dog were temporarily paralyzed, at the same time, when an object dived down toward them and then climbed back into the sky. (73)  It was luminous and white, a condition seen previously to coincide with the strongest emission of microwaves. In this case, the man and the dog were about equally susceptible to the induced paralysis. While there is no laboratory evidence of microwave paralysis in humans, experiments on small animals have produced motor paralysis that disappeared when the exposure was terminated. (74)

Physiological effects among animals are by no means limited


to dogs. Among the 200 cases under study, influences were also noted upon wild birds, pigeons, ducks, geese, chickens, turkeys, sheep, cows, horses, and cats. All these creatures are severely agitated by UFOs and they seem to fear them. A cat, hissing and spitting, leaped into the air and then hid under a bed, (75) sheep stampeded, (76) cows in the field panicked and ran away, (77) horses reared up and cattle did everything but turn somersaults, (78) and so on. Some of them may have been paralyzed. With a whistling sound, a UFO landed in a meadow in Denmark. The witness became paralyzed when he approached within 50 meters and observed that nearby cows seemed unable to move. He further noted that birds had stopped singing. (79)  Any naturalist knows that a disturbance in the woods causes birds to stop singing, and other wild creatures depend upon that change as an alarm signal. But the notion that the birds stopped singing because they had been paralyzed was also a prominent aspect of a sighting by three men in Brazil who were hunting crocodiles one night. A UFO on the opposite bank of a river caused an "awful, uncanny silence" to descend upon the forest. Not even a cicada was to be heard. (80)  Not only were the usually noisy, tropical birds put out of action, but, perhaps, so were the insects.

A UFO was spotted one night standing on three legs on some railroad tracks 300 meters from a man's home. It rose silently while a dome on top started to spin and the legs retracted. It was gone in 20 seconds. The next day, the witness inspected the site with his dog. There were no marks or traces, but one sniff sent the dog dashing away, howling. (81)  Things should return to normal immediately after a UFO has flown away, but unfortunately, they don't. Presumably the dog had no prior knowledge that he was visiting the site of a UFO landing, yet something disturbed him. Direct radiation from the UFO must be ruled out and another cause for his delayed reaction found. The language of the report itself provides the best clue that an odor was responsible. In a previous section concerning that subject, various noxious gases were found to be produced by UFOs. Some of these gases, being relatively heavy, could settle to the ground and linger for many hours.


A thick, gray disc coming straight down over a farm in Australia threw all the animals into a panic. For several days the cows could not be herded into the paddock over which the UFO had hovered. (82) similar aversion was demonstrated by some cattle in Iowa. In the middle of the night, a cigar-shaped object remained on the ground for 20 minutes amidst a vivid, red illumination, crackling noises, and the odor of ozone. In the morning the cattle were found to have bolted to the end of the pasture, from where they refused to budge toward the landing site for feeding. (83)  Fine strands resembling spider webs, known as angel hair, are sometimes discharged from UFOs for no apparent reason. This substance evaporates when touched and it has not been chemically analyzed. (84)  Such material, falling into a field in Tennessee, caused the witnesses to become nauseated and to feel itching sensations. The same effects were experienced by everyone who entered the area during the next few days. During that period, the family dog would not leave the house nor would the cows be coaxed back to the site. Everything eventually returned to normal when rainfall apparently washed away the offensive substance. (85)  Another possible source of offense to the animals is an odd, oily substance that is sometimes found at landing sites. (86)  If some of this material could be retrieved from a future landing, and if its chemical composition should prove to be unique, animal reactions to it could produce some interesting case studies. A sample of such substance, having a purple color and the odor of 3-in-1 oil, was turned over to the authorities in 1965. Its composition was never published. (87)

In summary, dogs, being sensitive to the approach of UFOs, constitute a universal detection network. They display symptoms of extreme fear when the UFO is moderately close, even though they may be indoors or inside an automobile where they cannot see it. An artificial state of fear that is induced by radiation is the suspected cause of this reaction. Many domestic animals and perhaps some wild ones panic at the approach of a UFO. The radiation that at greater intensity apparently causes a biochemical psychosis, also paralyzes dogs, cows, probably birds, and possibly insects.


Footnotes: Chapter 6

1. The primary source for this chapter is Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, Regnery, 1969,
    referred to merely by case number, in this instance, Case 694.
2. Case 903.
3. Lore, Gordon, Strange Effect From UFOs, p.16, National Investigations Committee on
    Aerial Phenomena, 1969.
4. Keyhoe, Donald E., The Flying Saucer Conspiracy, Holt, 1955.
5. Hall, Richard E., The UFO Evidence, National Investigations Committee on Aerial
    Phenomena, p.97, 1964.
6. Cases 199, 274, and 358.
7. Case 558.
8. Case 480.
9. Cases 477, 613, 142, 182, 823, 905, and 912.
10. Case 823.
11. Case65O.
12. Cases 482, 524, 720, 906, 912.
13. Lore, Gordon, Strange Effects From UFOs, p.8, National Investigations Committee
      on Aerial Phenomena, 1969.
14. Cases 274 and 314.
15. Hall, Richard E., The UFO Evidence, p. 97, National Investigations Committee on
      Aerial Phenomena, 1964,
16. Cases 682 and 524.
17. Case 300.
18. Case 525.
19. Case 323.
20. Case 413.
21. Case 337.
22. Bukstein, Edward J., Medical Electronics, p.131, Ungar, 1959.
23. Copson, David A., "Microwave Heating-In Freeze-Drying, Electronic Ovens, and Other
      Applications," Chapter 19, Radiation Biology of Microwaves, AVI Publishing Co., 1962.
24. Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.16, p.38, 1965.
25. Fitzhugh, Richard, "Mathematical Models of Excitation and Propagation In Nerve,"
      Chapter 1, Schwan, Herman P., Editor, Biological Engineer ing, McGraw-Hill, 1969.
26. Copson, David A., "Microwave Heating-In Freeze Drying Electronic Ovens, and Other
      Applications," Chapter 19, Radiation Biology of Microwaves, AVI Publishing Co., 1962.
27. Fitzhugh, Richard, "Mathematical Models of Excitation and Propagation in Nerve,"
      Chapter I. Schwan, Herman P., Editor, Biological Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1969.
28. Case 402.
29. LeaveIl, Lutie, C., et al., Anatomy and Physiology, 15th Edition, p.239, MacMillan, 1966.
30. Reynolds, Martin R., "Development of a Garrnent for Protection of Personnel in
      High-Power RF Environments," Peyton, Mary Fouse, Editor, Biological Effects of
      Microwave Radiation, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Tn-Service Conference,
      p.71, Vol.1, 16-18 August 1960, New York University, Plenum Press, 1961.
31. Payne, James N., "Similarities and Differences Between Technical Aspects of the Navy
      HERO Program for Ordnance and the Personnel Hazard Program," Peyton, Mary Fouse,
      Editor, Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation, Proceedings of the Fourth
      Annual Tn-Service Conference, p. 319, Vol. 1, 16-18 August 1960, New York
      University, Plenum Press, 1961.
32. Finch, Bernard E., "Phosphenes and the UFO Phenomenon," Flying Saucer Review,
      Vol.16, No.5, p.9, September/October, 1970.
33. Case 662, original source.
34. Case 900.
35. Milroy, William C., and Michaelson, Sol M., "Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation,"
      Health Physics, Vol.20, p.570, Pergamon Press, June 1971.
36. Case 677.
37. Neville, Roy 0., et al., "Microwaves," Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical
      Technology, p.58S, Wiley, 1971.
38. Case 000.
39. Case 893.
40. Milroy, William C., and Michaelson, Sol M., "Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation,"
      Health Physics, Vol, 20, p.573, Pergamon Press, June 1971.
41. Michaelson, "Sol M., and Dodge, Christopher H., Soviet Views on the Biological Effects
      of Microwaves-An Analysis," Health Physics, Vol. 21, p.108, Pergamon Press, July 1971.
42. Gordon, Z. V., Biological Effects of Microwaves in Occupational Hygiene, Translated
      From Russian, National Aeronautics and Space Ad ministration, Israel Program for Scientific
      Translations, 1970, available from Clearinghouse for Federal and Technical Information,
      Springfield, Va. 22151.
43. Wade, Nicholas, "Fischer-Spassky Charges: What Did The Russians Have In Mind?"
      Science, Vol.177, p.778, 1 September 1972.
44. Cases 484, 485, 540, 835, and 908.
45. Cases 748 and 895.
46. Case 697.
47. Case 755.
48. Case 590.
49. Case 629.
50. Case 787.
51. Case 525
52. Case 616.
53. Case 529.
54. Case 581.
55. Case 588.
56. Case 592.
57. Case 706.
58. Case 778.
59. Cases 551, 678, 754, 855, 871, 873, 877, 910, and 913.
60. Fuller, John G., incident At Exeter, p.143, Putnam, 1966.
61. This impression is inescapable in view of quotations from Fuller, John G., Incident At
      Exeter, pages63,65,71,72,73,81, 133,143,175,176,177, and 181, Putnam, 1966.
62. A "New FSR Catalogue, The Effects of UFOs Upon Animals, Birds, and Smaller
      Creatures," Flying Saucer Review, beginning in Vol.16, No.1, January/February 1970.
      Subsequent references in this section are identified as FSR Case NK,
63. FSR Case 34.
64. FSR Case 62.
65. FSR Case 118.
66. FSR Case 120.
67. FSR Case 30.
68. FSR Case 34.
69. FSR Case7l.
70. FSR Case 72.
71. FSR Case44.
72. FSR Case 78.
73. FSR Case 37.
74. Milroy, William C., and Michaelson, Sol M., "Biological Effects of  Microwave Radiation,
      "Health Physics, pp.567-575, Vol.20, June 1971.
75. FSR Case 28.
76. FSR Case 31.
77. FSR Case 42.
78. FSR Case 75.
79. FSR Case 23.
80. FSR Case 67.
81. FSR Case 69, original source.
82. FSR Case 75.
83. FSR Case 109.
84. For a compilation of 43 cases involving angel hair see Hall, Richard H., Editor, The
      UFO Evidence, p.100, National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964.
      Regrettably the author can offer no suggestions as to the purpose, composition, or
      significance of angel hair.
85. FSR Case 116.
86. Vallee, Jacques, Passport To Magonia, Cases 187, 222, 639, and 850, Regnery, 1969.
87. Fuller, John G., Incident at Exeter, p.35, Putnam, 1966.

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