Form: Research
Date: Sat, 11 Oct 2008 19:04:06 -0400 (EDT)
From: Jan Aldrich <>
Subject: Secret Twining Letter - "The reported phenomena are real"
To:  A-Team

(Fran Ridge: Original documents provided by Keith Chester can be found at this link AND docs after this text  report
Clearer "copies" can also be found at the next link or at the end of this report (items 4 & 5). Item 6 has not been found and is therefore blank ).

Jan Aldrich:

The version that Steve sent missing the AMC office symbol and "blame line" give the wrong impress of the purpose of the so-called "Twining memo."  The letter probably composed by McCoy and signed by Twining was in response to a request from A-2.  The original letter from Schulman has not been found.  However, several copies of the AMC's Opinion on Flying Discs (Twining letter) are known to exist is several Air Force files.  (Aside here: Obviously, the denial over the years by the USAF that the letter didn't exist is a rather blatant falsehood, because the several copies in the files of USAF activities were easily retrievable.)  The copy in the USAF HQ Adjutant General's files has the names of the officers and engineers who produced the opinion written in pen.  Since they were from two AMC components T-2 Intelligence and T-3 Engineering, it would be presumptuous for McCoy to sign the letter.  Also, since the point of the letter seems to be to support the request for an authorized, budgeted UFO project and Twining had on his authority authorized AMC's involvement in the study of UFOs about 2 July 1947, that is why he probably signed the letter. 

Unfortunately few in ufology have researched how military staffs operate or even the more simple subject of military correspondence.  This letter is often presented out of context which gives the wrong impression of its function.  The most important copy of the letter, probably in the Commanders, AMC files, or General T-2 files, or AMC Adjutant General files would be the original draft letter.  Under normal procedures, McCoy or someone in T-2 would have prepared a draft copy of the letter, all staff sections would have reviewed it for comments and corrections which would then be given to General Twining for his comments and corrections and finally version typed up for signature.  Generally this staffing is saved in permanent files as mentioned above.

The Chain of Command from AMC is up the Logistic chain.  T-2 being a staff function for AMC would have supervision, but not command from USAF Intelligence.  However, T-2 and later TID was sort of a bastard organization since they also were an operating organization and expected to respond to request not only from the chain of command but to other agencies like USAF Intel. and others.  This is outside normal military procedures which were corrected when ATIC was later formed.  At this time the fiction that T-2 was not a function intelligence organization, but rather just component of AMC was politically important at this time as General Chamberlain hear of Army Intelligence had been tasked to supply the new USAF with intelligence assets from the Army.  Chamberlain contented that T-2/TID was in fact an operating agency of USAF intelligence and as such he could lower his commitment to transfer Army intelligence personnel by the number of personal in T-2.  Just some of the interplay that was taking place in 1947.

Some general comments to put the AMC opinion in context which I think I sent out earlier: 
We don't have all the material from the early considerations of official UFO investigations.  People like to pick out little items here and there which does not help the understanding of the official investigations. 
Again, as I have said before, the documents trace an evolutions from Taylor/Garrett memos in July and August 1947 to the mis-characterized Sept "Twining memo" to the 1948 Air 203.  Mistakes and typos are carried over from one document to the next, so the evolution can be traced.
Generally ufologists do not understand military correspondence.  This has led to such labels as "The Twining Memo," "The McCoy Memo," etc.  This confuses rather than elucidates UFO history. 
Generally letters and memos are written for a reason.  They are in response to inquiries, request, or to established something.  They do not come out of thin air.  Understanding the underlying reasons for the documents clarifies official UFO history.
1.  In 1946, General LeMay, then head of R&D, in response to a request about interim projects at AMC, clarified the policy.  If a project were deemed important or necessary by AMC, then at the commander's own discretion, he could authorize such a project until the next budget cycle, at which time authorization from AF HQ had to be sought for continuation of the project.
2.  In early June 1947 an intelligence report (not yet found) was circulated concerning the production of Horten aircraft in Eastern Siberia, by 1952 over 1000 such craft should be available.  This last part apparently is deleted from the summaries and the abbreviated report indicated that such disc shaped craft already exist in large numbers.  The report was considered of doubtful reliability, but was widely circulated.  (Air Defense Command magazine "Air Intelligence Reports" contained the longest discussion of this report.)  (A Russian informant familiar with Soviet aviation history told me that no such Horton project existed and factories and test facilities identified in AIR 203 and other documents were manufacturing ME 262 and other similar jet aircraft.)
3.  About 2 July Twining the AMC commander, after talking to Dave Johnston, Boise Statement aviation editor and Idaho Air National Guard officer about UFOs in the Western US, did initiate such an interim project.  (It was probably coordinated with HQ AAF as General Vandenberg mentioned something to that effect in the NY Herald-Tribune.
4.  About 7-10 July after a meeting in General Schulgan's office a decision was made to investigate 5 cases involving apparently reliable people.  This is after and apparently independent of Twining decision.  Cables were dispatched to ADC and AMC regarding this decision at close of business 10 July, after the wave had peaked and begun its decline.)  (ADC in turn tasked 4th Air Force with finding Arnold and Rankin and interviewing them.)
5.  In July Taylor/Garret issued a memo about UFOs being real.
6.  A request was made to General LeMay concerning any projects which might give rise to such reports.  Another words, "Are we barking up the wrong tree?  Is this one of our own projects?"  When LeMay answered in the negative, then, further investigation seem warranted.
7.  The August Taylor/Garrett memo with the 12 incidents are the results of initial investigation by AF Intel in Washington from reports received by them.
8.  Loedding, AMC engineer in charge of flying disc investigations" and "initiator of Project SIGN"  was assigned to meet with Dr. Carrol in Washington at AF Intel to discuss how to investigate UFOs.  The meeting was delayed due to Carrol being on leave.  (During the meeting Carrol revealed that there are radar reports from Japan.  Loedding knew nothing of these and on his return to AMC told McCoy who requested details.  AF Intel hurriedly completed an analysis of the radar reports.  (This analysis is not in AF Intel "Flying Disc" files nor in Project BB files.  It is now obvious that AF intel was not sharing all data with AMC.)
9.  September 1947. "The Twining Memo," "AMC Opinion on Flying Disc" was prepared in response to requests from AF Intel.  AF Intel. prepares its own, "Analysis of Flying Disc Reports."  Both documents would be used to request the interim project at Wright Field be made part of the AMC mission  and included in the budget. 
10.  In Sept. LTC Seashore, T-2, hand carried a request to Air Forces, Europe and CIC, Europe for information on the Horton brothers and possible UFO designed used by the Soviets.  (Such documents do not exist in Project BB files, but only in Army Intel (CIC) files.  The so-called "Schulman Memo" contains similar Essential Elements of Information (EEI) for flying discs.  EEI's in both documents reflect the early June 1947 intel report on Horton aircraft in Soviet territory.
11. Nov 11, 1947.  Request were sent up the AMC chain of command and General Craigie authorized Project Sign letter was the authorization for the project. 
Note that as soon as that is done Project SIGN requests all the intelligence reports that AF Intel has on ghost rockets and all other UFO reports at AF Intel are sent to AMC for duplication.


Re:  Brad's contention that the AMC investigation started on 30 Jun 47.

Whatever may have gone on before was not official at AMC.  Bob Todd located Twining instructions in AMC records.  Apparently T-3 did some of the initial work as Bentenel answered letters from people who sent in reports also found by Bob Todd. 

We still need more insight into the early days as to what actually went on.  Unfortunately it looks like many records were lost or are currently unavailable to us or we do not have the researchers with time and resources to research this period.

Jan Aldrich

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