THE UFO EVIDENCE, published by the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, Copyright 1964


A Cross-section of significant cases and guide

to additional examples in other sections

Most people are unaware that UFO sightings, many by exceptionally good witnesses, have been reported regularly in recent years. Contrary to popular belief, the reports have continued into the 1960's. The last fully publicized series of sightings was in November 1957 [Section XII; November 1957 Chronology]. At that time the cases involving electromagnetic effects on automobile motors and lights made headlines all over the country for two weeks.

Before that, UFO sightings were reported and discussed widely through 1952; in that year, the Air Force (officially charged with investigation of UFO reports) investigated a record number of cases - 1,501. UFOs violated the restricted air spaces over Washington, D.C., on two consecutive weekends in July, were tracked on radar, and pursued by jet interceptors [Section XII; July 1952 Chronology].

Since 1957, the newswire services and national radio and television have rarely mentioned UFO sightings. As a result, few people outside the immediate area of occurrence ever learn about a report. Local newspapers and stations continue to report UFO activity, but it has been considered "local" rather than "national" news, in general.

The misconception that UFOs are no longer being sighted, and other erroneous beliefs, are challenged in this Section. Sample reports are given, representing a cross-section of the entire report, and providing a digest of the type of evidence which constitutes the UFO problem. The cases also were chosen to furnish examples of features of UFO sightings, such as maneuver patterns [Section XII] and UFOs tracked by instruments [Section VIII].


This is probably the most common question asked by casually interested persons. The answer is "yes." But the sighting reports do not receive the publicity they once did. [See Section XI for chronology of recent sightings].

A grayish disc-shaped object which hovered, wobbling on its axis, then evaded pursuit, was sighted October 2, 1961 at Salt Lake City, Utah airport.

(1) UFO hovered with rocking notion at about 6,000 ft. south of the airport
(2) UFO rose abruptly estimated 1000 ft. as Harris closed in.
(3) UFO quickly moved away an estimated 10 miles, stopped and hovered, rocking motion. (SSE).
(4) As Harris closed in second time, UFO took off at high speed on 245-degree course (WSW) climbing at an angle of about 20-degrees, completely out of sight in 2-3 seconds. (Copy of observer's sketch).

Private pilot Waldo J. Harris, a real estate broker, investigated the object in his light aircraft as 8-10 ground personnel at the airport watched. Mr. Harris signed a NICAP report form on October 10, and later answered additional questions by a NICAP Subcommittee member. His report: "I was preparing to take off in a Mooney Mark 20A from the North- South runway at Utah Central Airport when I noticed a bright spot in the sky over the southern end of the Salt Lake Valley. I began my take-off run without paying much attention to the bright spot as I assumed that it was some aircraft reflecting the sun as it turned. After I was airborne and trimmed for my climb-out, I noticed that the bright spot was still about in the same position as before. I still thought it must be the sun reflecting from an airplane, so I made my turn onto my cross-wind leg of the traffic pattern, and was about to turn downwind when I noticed that the spot was in the same spot still.

"I turned out of the pattern and proceeded toward the spot to get a better look. As I drew nearer I could see that the object had no wings nor tail nor any other exterior control surfaces protruding from what appeared to be the fuselage. It seemed to be hovering with a little rocking motion. As it rocked up away from me, I could see that it was a disc shaped object. I would guess the diameter at about 50 to 55 feet, the thickness in the middle at about 8 to 10 feet. It had the appearance of sand- blasted aluminum. I could see no windows or doors or any other openings, nor could I see any landing gear doors, etc., protruding, nor showing.

"I believe at the closest point I was about 2 miles from the object, at the same altitude or a little above the object. It rose abruptly about 1000 feet above me as I closed in, giving me an excellent view of the underneath side, which was exactly like the upper side as far as I could tell. Then it went off on a course of about 170 degrees for about 10 miles where it again hovered with that little rocking motion.

"I again approached the object, but not so closely this time, when it departed on a course of about 245 degrees climbing at about 18 to 20 degrees above the horizon. It went completely out of sight in 2 or 3 seconds. As you know I can keep our fastest jets in sight for several minutes, so you can see that this object was moving rather rapidly.


"All the time I was observing the object, after getting visual confirmation from the ground, I was describing what I saw on radio unicom frequency. I was answering questions from the ground both from Utah Central, and Provo. The voice at Provo said that they could not see the object, but at least 8 or 10 people did see it from the ground at Utah Central Airport.

"As to seeing it again, I was returning to the field after it had departed when I was asked over radio if I still could see the object , and I reported that I could not. They said they had it in sight again. I turned back and saw it at much greater distance only for about a second or two when it completely vanished. The guys on the ground said it went straight up as it finally left, but I didn't see that departure."

On the NICAP report form, Mr. Harris pointed out that the UFO at one time "passed below the horizon in front of mountains to the south." This fact rules out any astronomical explanation.

Later that month, an engineer in Pennsylvania saw a formation of four disc-shaped objects, with apparent lights or ports on the rims.


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Form 97 UFO Report by Carl H. Geary, Jr. (Page 1)
Page 2

Skeptics have often claimed in public forums that "no astronomer has ever seen a UFO," sometimes implying that this proved UFOs do not exist. Astronomers, other scientists, and experienced observers of many types have often made reports [Section V, VI].

One detailed report by trained observers, describing a maneuvering elliptical UFO, has been reported briefly in the literature. The full, copyrighted story is here reproduced, with permission of the publisher.

[J. Gordon Vaeth, "200 Miles Up - The Conquest of the Upper Air," Second Edition, Revised Printing. Copyright (c) 1956, The Ronald Press Company, N.Y., ppg. 113-116.]

The General Mills, Inc., balloon personnel, who launched and tracked most of the large plastic research balloons during the 1940's and 1950's took little stock in UFO reports until April 24, 1949,

"On that date, a balloon crew was at the White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico, together with personnel from the U.S Navy Special Devices Center for a special Skyhook flight to be undertaken for that Office of Naval Research activity. The author was present as Navy representative in charge of the ground handling and balloon phases of the operation.

"As part of this particular project, a balloon launching site had been established three miles north of Arrey, New Mexico. Charles B. Moore, Jr., an aerologist, graduate engineer and balloonist, and four enlisted personnel from the Navy Unit, White Sands Proving Ground, had set up facilities there to observe and record local weather data preparatory to the Special Devices Center Skyhook operation. Instrumentation on hand consisted of a stop watch and a ML-47 (David White) theodolite, a tracking instrument consisting of a 25-power telescope so mounted as to provide readings of vertical (elevation) and horizontal (azimuth) bearings.

"At 10:20 A.M. on April 24th, this group of five released a small 350-gram weather balloon for observation of upper wind velocities and directions. The balloon was followed by Moore with the theodolite until immediately after the 10:30 reading, when he relinquished the tracking instrument to look up to find the balloon with the naked eye

"Searching the sky for the balloon, he thought he had found it when he saw a whitish spherical object right along the direction


the theodolite was pointed (45 degrees elevation and 210 degrees azimuth). The object was moving east at a rate of 5 degrees of azimuth change per second.

"When the difference in angle between the theodolite and the supposed balloon became apparent, Moore took over the theodolite and found the true balloon still there, whereupon he immediately abandoned it and picked up the unidentified object as it came out of the sun. At the time, the sun was at a computed bearing of 60 degrees elevation and 127 degrees azimuth. The object was moving too fast to be kept in the scope through cranking the theodolite around; one of the men, therefore, had to point the theodolite while Moore observed the object through the telescope.

"The object was an ellipsoid about 2-1/2 times as long as it was wide. It had a length of about .02 degrees subtended angle and was gleaming white in color. It did not have metallic or reflected shine. Toward the underside near the tail, the gleaming white became a light yellow.

"The object, readily visible to the naked eye and seen by all the members of the group, filled the field of the theodolite's 25-power scope. Its rapid movement, unfortunately, prevented Moore from obtaining a hard or clear focus, and no good detail was observable.

"The azimuth angle decreased as the object continued on a north heading (it originally came out of the southwest). Becoming smaller in size it moved to an azimuth reading of 20 degrees to 25 degrees, at which point the azimuth held constant. Coincidentally with this constant azimuth, the elevation angle suddenly increased from 25 degrees minimum to 29 degrees, at which point the object was lost to sight. It disappeared in a sharp climb after having been visible to Moore and his group for about 60 seconds.

"Fifteen minutes after the object had disappeared, Moore sent up another pibal weather balloon to check wind values. This balloon burst after an 88-minute flight to 93,000 feet and traveled only 13 miles in a southerly direction during that time. This was positive proof that the object could not have been a balloon moving at such angular speed below 90,000 feet.

"The object was seen under conditions of a cloudless sky and no haze. It left no vapor trail or exhaust. It was observed from an isolated mud flat in the New Mexico desert where there was extreme quiet; no noise of any kind was heard in connection with the sighting, and there were no cars, airplanes, or other noises nearby which might have blotted out sound coming from the object.

"As the day progressed and airplanes flew over and near the balloon launching site, Moore's group was able to identify them by appearance and engine noise. They saw nothing again that day which bore any resemblance to the white elliptical, unidentified object.

"Moore's sighting was an extremely fortunate one in that tracking instrumentation was set up and a weather balloon airbourne at the time. It represents one of the best substantiated and authentic unidentified object sightings on record.

"The foregoing discussion of 'flying saucers' does not represent any desire by the author to become involved in this controversial subject. The saucers have been mentioned because there has been in a number of cases a close relationship between reported sightings and the flight trajectories of Skyhook balloons. The description of Moore's instrumented sighting of an unidentified object has been included because it is authentic, details have not been previously published, and it occurred during a Skyhook operation.

"The author, and indeed Moore himself, make no claim that the unidentified object was a 'flying saucer.' The details have been set forth. Let the reader take the sighting for what it is worth and evaluate it for himself!" [l.]

Dr. Seymour L. Hess, who sighted a UFO in 1950, is a meteorologist and astronomer. He is currently head of the Department of Meteorology, Florida State University, and is considered an expert on planetary atmospheres. [2.1 See letter next col.

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Another sighting by General Mills, Inc., personnel in the vicinity of White Sands, New Mexico, was reported by Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, former Chief of the Air Force Project Blue Book UFO investigation. [3.] Two General Mills employees and four others at Artesia, New Mexico, were watching a Skyhook balloon, January 16, 1951. Suddenly they noticed two tiny specks on the horizon moving rapidly toward them. The objects shot straight toward the balloon, tipped on edge revealing their disc shape, circled the balloon once and flew off over the horizon. In comparison with the known size of the balloon, the discs were estimated to be 60 feet in diameter.

A particularly detailed account of a lens-shaped disc was obtained from an experienced engineer by the NICAP Assistant Director in personal correspondence during 1955. [4.]

          Date: October 1954, about mid-month
          Location: Cherry Valley, New York 
          Time: About 4:00 p.m. 
          Witness: Major A. B. Cox, graduate of Yale University, member of the American Society of 
                        Mechanical Engineers, and Society of American Engineers. 
          Excerpts from letter dated December 28, 1955 from Major A. B. Cox to Richard Hall: 

"The sky was more or less covered with streaks or layers of clouds, with blue sky between, so that the rays of the sun came through almost horizontally, the time being not far from sunset in the valley. I was walking in a NE direction, having been an airplane spotter for a long time, I have formed the habit of looking at the sky, quite naturally.

"I happened to be looking at the West in the direction of my farm buildings, perhaps a half mile distant, and saw something which at first glance was about over my farm buildings. It was quite low, and did not seem to be more than a few hundred feet above the earth. I thought at first it was a large airplane not moving very swiftly. . . . It was moving horizontally in a direction parallel to my own direction. Then I noticed that it seemed to make no noise, and then I could not see any wings or tail or fuselage generally.

"It seemed to be a large disc or lens-shaped object, and in comparison with the objects below I estimated it to be perhaps 30 or 35 feet in diameter. . , , It was moving like a wheel sliding sidewise and not rotating, and in perspective presented an elliptical appearance such as any circular object would when viewed from an angle; the degree of ellipticity varying as it came up and then passed me. I must have seen it for 20 seconds or a little more. Then it got ahead of me and it presented the appearance of a circular disc, perhaps five or six feet thick. The color


was gray, and I think perhaps a little darker on the rim or edge; not much but enough to make the edge sharply defined.

"Suddenly it stopped and seemed to be going in a direction more or less at right angles to its first motion, but still in an upright direction. . . This sudden stop interested me as an engineer, because any sudden retardation or acceleration requires in so large an object the application of a very considerable force, and seemed a much shorter turn and a more rapid turn than any airplane I had ever seen could be capable of.

"It then began to ascend in a direction of perhaps at right angles to its first direction and at an upward angle of perhaps 30 or 35 degrees from the horizontal. . . . There were some fleecy clouds above it, and it entered them and was lost to sight for perhaps a second or so, to emerge into vision again above this first layer of clouds. Its direction had not changed, and shortly after it entered some more layers of cloud, which were thicker, and was lost to view."


The definitive answer to this question must await a full-fledged investigation by scientists using appropriate instrumentation, as NICAP advocates [Section XIV]. However, the accumulation of reports by good observers and some of the special evidence such as radar trackings [Section VIII] strongly suggest this hypothesis. How else can one explain the maneuvers of the disc which pilot Waldo Harris attempted to investigate? The "curiosity" evidenced by the two discs which circled the Skyhook balloon? The powered flight indicated by the reports of Dr. Hess, Engineer Cox, and others? Section II discusses this question in detail.

How else can one explain reports such as the following of objects approaching at meteor like speed, then hovering or maneuvering? When these reports come from pilots, scientists, engineers, and police officers they deserve far more serious, scientific attention than they have yet received.

Date: May 13, 1952
Location: National City, California
Time: Approximately 8:55 p.m. PDT
Witnesses: Donald R. Carr, aeronautical engineer, and at least six others in separate locations, including a teacher who is a former Navy pilot.
Excerpts from Mr. Carr's report. [5.]

"I saw what I thought was the trail of a large meteor appear, approximately 5 degrees of arc East of a line between the two pointers and almost exactly in the center of the bowl of the Big Dipper. [See diagram.] The trail was of a red color and appeared to be coming down at about an angle of 20 degrees to my line of sight and in a southwesterly direction. Only the red trail was visible for about two seconds and then a small white dot became visible, from which the trail was emanating. The speed appeared to be meteoric and so I still thought the object was what is commonly called a 'shooting star.' [After 2 or 3 seconds] the white object had an apparent diameter of 1/64 to 1/32 inch. The trail faded and the object still continued coming down. The speed appeared to be decreasing and I noted a certain erratic quality to the flight of the object, which now appeared to have a self-luminous or fluorescent quality. . . [for about 10 more seconds] the object was following a gradual curved path in process of leveling off. . . [then] the object was flying level on a course almost due West. . . I estimated the altitude of the object at this point of its trajectory to be from 10,000 to 15,000 feet. Its speed at this time appeared to be within the range of known aircraft speeds. To the naked eye the object appeared as a sphere of about 1/16 inch diameter. . . . Through the [6 power] telescope the object presented a larger disc but the brightness did not appreciably increase. . . . In level flight the object seemed to dart from side to side in an oscillating motion without diminishing of forward speed. . . After traveling a course almost due West for approximately one mile, the object turned toward the Northwest and appeared to circle over San Diego Bay and Point Loma and disappeared traveling North at a constant altitude and speed. During the entire time the object was visible there was absolutely no apparent sound created by it. Despite its terrific speed in its dive there was no shock wave or noise from its power source."

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About 9:25 p.m., Mr. Carr observed what appeared to be the same object returning from the North, and circling West. It passed over downtown San Diego, where bright ground lights seemed to reflect off a metal hull.

"It is my conviction," Mr. Carr stated, "that since this object followed an apparently controlled course it was not moving under the influence of gravity, and must have been guided by an intelligence unknown to us. Its dive from an extreme altitude at possibly meteoric speed, its deceleration, leveling off, and circle of the city twice indicate that it arrived from interplanetary space and was under intelligent control."

The former Navy Pilot, Harold Strawn, with a group of students in La Mesa also witnessed the meteoric appearance, the leveling off and circling.

A multiple visual and multiple radar sighting, similarly suggesting controlled flight, occurred August 12, 1953; near Rapid City, South Dakota. The UFO was first spotted hovering in the eastern sky by the Ground Observer Corps. It moved in over the city, then back to its original position. Then ground radar began tracking the UFO, and an F-84 was scrambled and vectored in on the object, chasing it for 120 miles. Both the UFO and the jet showed plainly on the GCI radar screen. Each time the jet began to close in, the UFO would move ahead with a burst of speed. When the pilot gave up and turned back to base, the UFO turned and followed.

A second F-84 scrambled and chased the UFO 160 miles, obtaining a radar lock-on. The UFO again stayed just out of reach. When the pilot switched on his radar-ranging gunsight, and the red light blinked on showing something real and solid was ahead of him, the pilot was scared. ("When I talked to him, he readily admitted that he'd been scared. . he asked the controller if he could break off the intercept." [6., p.305].) This time the UFO continued on course to the north. The Ground Observer Corps on the path ahead was notified, and reported seeing a light speeding north.

At the climax of the sighting, when the pilot became frightened, ground radar showed the jet and the UFO; the pilot's gunsight radar showed the UFO, and the pilot could see with his own eyes a speeding unidentified light in front of him.

A NICAP member later queried the Air Force about the case, and received a written reply on September 17, 1958 stating: "Photos of the radar scope and gun camera photos were made but were not sufficiently clear for evaluation. The Ellsworth Air Force Base case is still listed as unknown or unsolved." [7.]

NICAP Note: The fact that the gun camera photos showed an image at all is further proof that something real and solid was outspeeding jet interceptors. In conjunction with the multiple radar and multiple visual observations, an image on the film is close to complete proof of the reality of UFOS.

Capt. W. J. Hull, veteran Capital Airlines pilot, was a UFO skeptic. He had written an article entitled "The Obituary of the Flying Saucers" for The Airline Pilot magazine. At 10:10 p.m., November 14, 1956, Captain Hull was a pilot of Capital Flight No. 77, approaching Mobile, Alabama, enroute from New York City [8.] Suddenly, he and his co-pilot, Peter MacIntosh, noticed a bright light through the upper part of the windshield. The


plane was on a southwesterly course, and the object, looking like a meteor, was falling across their path from left to right. But instead of burning out, the "meteor" halted abruptly directly in front of the plane.

"What the hell is it, a jet?" Macintosh shouted.

As the UFO remained a constant distance in front of the plane, Captain Hull grabbed his microphone and called Mobile Tower:

"Bates Tower, this is Capital 77. Look out toward the north and east and see if you can see a strange white light hovering in the sky."

Mobile quickly answered that a thick cloud layer was obscuring vision, and asked Captain Hull if he thought the object was in the vicinity of Mobile.

"Affirmative," Hull replied. "It is directly ahead of us and at about our altitude or slightly higher. We are right over Jackson and have descended to 10,000 feet.

Immediately after the radio exchange, the UFO began to move. It darted back and forth, rising and falling, making extremely sharp turns, sometimes changing course 90 degrees in an instant. The color and size remained constant.

"Macintosh and I sat there completely flabbergasted at this unnerving exhibition," Captain Hull reported. After 30 seconds or more, the UFO ceased its violent maneuvers and again appeared to hover ahead of the plane. About this time Mobile Tower called back:

"Capital 77, we are trying to raise the Brookley AFB Tower." At this moment, the UFO began another series of "crazy gyrations, lazy 8's, square chandelles. . . " and then shot out over the Gulf of Mexico rising at a steep angle. It diminished rapidly to a pinpoint and disappeared in the night. (Elapsed time: At least two minutes.)

"The one thing which I can't get over," Captain Hull stated, "is the fact that when it came, it came steeply downward; when it departed after its amazing show, it went steeply upward!"

December 19/20 of 1958 was a cloudless night in Dunellen, New Jersey. At 12:55 a.m., Patrolmen LeRoy A. Arboreen and B. Talada were on night patrol, cruising west on Center Street. From an area elevated about 15 to 20 feet they had an unobstructed view to north, south, and west.

In a signed report to NICAP, [9] Patrolman Arboreen (ex-Navy man and graduate of the New Jersey State Police Academy) described the experience:

"This object came at us from the west. At first it looked like a red hot piece of coal about the size of a quarter held at arm's length. In a matter of seconds it was as large as a ruler held at arm's length. That is when it came to a complete stop.

"The shape of the object was distinct. (See illustration.) The body of the object was solid bright red and it gave off a pulsating red glow completely around the object. The object hovered a few seconds, then made a left turn and again hovered for a few seconds, then went straight up like a shot. We watched it until it completely faded beyond the stars."

In this matter-of-fact manner, the two officers described an occurrence which is totally inexplicable. Meteors do not hover or shoot upward. No known aircraft is elliptical, and glows bright red in flight, not to mention the observed performance. Nor does any known phenomenon descend through the atmosphere like a meteor, then circle around, as Engineer Carr observed. Nor does the gyrating light observed by Captain Hull, descending, pacing the airliner, then ascending, have any natural explanation.


This surprising misconception, that UFOs are exclusively a native phenomenon of the United States, is completely refuted in the Foreign Reports Section [X] Part of the reason for this erroneous belief is the lack of information on foreign sightings reported by newswire representatives abroad. In 1962, for instance, a major concentration of sightings occurred in Argentina [Section XII, Argentine Chronology], beginning in May and lasting almost all year. A few of the May sightings were reported briefly in the New York Times (June 3, 1962) from a Reuters dispatch, but in a manner implying that the sightings lasted only one day. In general, U.S. news coverage of these sightings was practically nonexistent. Reuters apparently was the only news agency to report them at all outside of Argentina.

Most major countries of the world for years have had either official or unofficial investigations of UFO sightings [Section X]. American servicemen overseas have contributed many reports.

At 11:20 a.m. March 29, 1952, an Air Force pilot was flying a T-6 north of Misawa, Japan. It was a bright cloudless day. Lt. D. C. Brigham was in the T-6 target plane in a practice intercept mission, with a flight of two F-84's pursuing him.

As the first F-84 overtook him at 6000 feet, Brigham noticed a flash of sunlight behind it and saw a small shiny disc-shaped object gaining on the interceptor. The UFO curved toward the F-84, decelerating rapidly to the Thunderjet's air speed (150 to 160 mph) and flipping up on edge in a 90 degree bank. Then it fluttered along close to the interceptor's fuselage (between the two aircraft) for 2 to 3 seconds, and pulled away around the starboard wing, flipping once, apparently as it hit the slipstream. Finally, the object passed the F-84, crossed in front, pulled up abruptly, accelerated, and shot out of sight in a near vertical climb.

Lieutenant Brigham estimated that the UFO at its closest point was 30 to 50 feet away from his plane. It was round, shiny as polished chromium, and seemed to be about 8 inches in diameter. Throughout the observation, the disc rocked back and forth in 40 degree banks at about one-second intervals. (See Section XII, Flight Characteristics.] Lieutenant Brigham saw no exhaust or protrusions, but reported a ripple in the apparently metal skin around the edge of the disc. [10]

Foreign pilots, scientists, and engineers also have observed UFOs many times. Around sunset June 30, 1954, south of Goose Bay, Labrador, a British Overseas Airways (BOAC) airliner was paced by a large "parent" object and about six satellite objects [See Section X, Foreign Reports]. Later that night (about 2:15 p.m. local time near Oslo, Norway), two UFOs operating in tandem were observed and filmed under especially favorable conditions. [11.] A solar eclipse was in progress, and three planes carrying scientists and technicians on a scientific expedition were flying through the moon's shadow. About 50 people in the three aircraft saw two "enormous" silvery discs swoop down from some clouds 15 to 20 miles away (estimate based on fact UFOs were in sunlight).

The objects sped along the horizon keeping an exact distance from each other, one slightly behind and above the other, both with forward edge tilted down. The observers detected apparent rotation, as the UFOs leveled off and disappeared into the distance after about 30 seconds. The chief cameraman of the expedition, John Bjornulf, managed to expose about 10 seconds of movie film which showed the UFOs. The films, released by Gaumont, a British firm, were shown on American television September 26, 1954. Still photographs of the UFOs have also been printed. Ernest Graham, one of the witnesses, stated that 50 persons afterwards wrote reports on what they had seen. [12]

Another unexplainable disc was observed, tracked on radar, and chased by two U S. Air Force jet pilots somewhere in the Far East. [13.]


"On_____ December 1956 two USAF jet pilots were practicing ground radar positioned intercepts on each other in the vicinity of______________________

During one run, the report states, the intercepting pilot picked up a large unexplained radar blip; he estimated the UFO to be as large as a B-29 bomber. Radar showed it to be 20 miles away and 30 degrees to the left.

"Pilot called the CCI [Ground Control Intercept] site to ask if they had a target which would correspond to the unidentified blip. After receiving an answer in the negative, he asked for and received permission to determine the nature of the source of the radar return."

The pilot closed in at over 700 mph; at 8 miles range a round object became visible exactly where the radar showed it. The apparent size was very large. The pilot described it as "the size of a lead pencil eraser if placed against the windscreen." [Using figures supplied by North American Aviation, the diameter of the UFO was computed to be about 350 feet.] [14.]

The pilot got a radar "lock-on" (automatically guiding his plane toward the UFO). As he continued to close in, his radar was suddenly jammed by a strong interference. Using anti-jam procedure, the pilot switched frequency. For 10 seconds, this eliminated the mysterious interference pulses, then they began again. But the pulsations were not strong enough to break the radar lock-on, and the jet held its course.

"The jet closed to within 5 nautical miles of the object and could not close further. When the pilot was closest to the unidentified object, it appeared to make a shallow left turn. It had the appearance of being circular on the bottom."

The color of the UFO was described as a golden tan, with no reflection from the sun. After the UFO began turning, the pilot's radar indicated that the object was "moving up and away at from 1,500 to 1,800 knots [1,700 to over 2,000 mph]."

The Air Force report states that this is an estimate, since the UFOs' rate of departure was faster than the jet's radar could track. The blip "disappeared by moving rapidly off the top of the scope."

The Intelligence Report shows that the jet and all of its equipment was immediately checked, and all systems were satisfactory. Under "Comments of the interrogation officers," the Report states:

"The observing pilot, Lt. , had many flying hours as of the time of the incident. Over half had been logged in this type of jet. He appeared to be conscientious and reported the incident in a straightforward, slightly embarrassed manner, saying that he would doubt the possibility of such an occurrence if it hadn't actually happened to him.

"The fact that no unidentified tracks were observed by ground radar should not be given much weight in evaluating this report. Both the jet aircraft involved required IFF in order that the controlling CCI site could plot them." ["IFF" is an identification code transmitter system developed in World War II called "Identification, Friend or Foe." The fact that IFF signals were required for ground radar to plot the jets indicates that the Air Force planes otherwise would not have shown up on the ground radar.]

The above sample cases contain examples of most of the recurring features of reported UFOs:

      * Reports from competent observers such as scientists and pilots. 
      * Flight characteristics such as a disc wobbling on its axis. 
      * Maneuver patterns such as hovering and terrific acceleration. 
      * Physical evidence such as radar trackings and electromagnetic effects. 

Typically, the majority of reports describe disc-shaped or elliptical objects. [See Section XII, Patterns, for additional de tails.]


When a person who has been a skeptic first becomes convinced that UFOs are, or might be, real, his usual first reaction is that they must be secret devices. While space activity in the past six years undoubtedly has caused some false UFO reports, the activity of secret test devices on the other hand would necessarily be confined to restricted test areas. The arguments against the secret device theory, then, are:

a. Test devices of one nation would not be observed worldwide [see Section X, Worldwide UFO Reports].

b. If secret devices were operational in the scope necessary to account for UFO reports, the technology implied would cause all current jets and rockets to be completely outmoded. Yet, the direction of our research and experimentation does not reflect such a breakthrough.

c. Perhaps most damaging to the secret device theory is the fact that UFOs apparently have been observed for a very long time [see Section XI, Chronology]. Soviet aerial technology through and after World War II was not impressive. German technology at the end of World War II was impressive, and this has caused advocates of this theory to attribute UFOs to captured German scientists and engineers working secretly for the U.S. or Russia. American technology was making rapid strides at the close of the war, but our hottest operational aerial devices were propeller-driven aircraft, and our few guided missiles were hardly out of the laboratory

However, NICAP examined this possibility thoroughly, consulting scientists and engineers (including Prof. Dr. Hermann Oberth, famous German rocket expert) and found not the slightest evidence to confirm the rumors of secret devices developed by former Nazi scientists.

The antiquity of UFO sightings, especially, rules out the possibility of any sort of test devices, secret or otherwise, accounting for more than a handful of UFO reports.

Explorer Nicholas Roerich, on an expedition in the Himalayan Mountains, August 5, 1926, and others in his caravan, saw a shiny oval-shaped object [15.] While watching a soaring eagle, they noticed the object far above moving south at high speed and observed it through binoculars. The UFO then made a turn to the southwest and moved out of sight in the distance.

An early postwar observation by an unusually well-trained observer was reported to NICAP Board Member, the Rev. Albert Bailer: [See photostat].

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1. For other examples of UFO sightings by General Mills balloon personnel, see J. J. Kaliszewski reports, Section VI.

2. Sample contributions to astronomy literature:
Hess, Dr. Seymour L., "A Meteorological approach to the question of water vapor on Mars and the mass of the Martian atmosphere," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 60, 289, (1948)
_________________"Some Aspects of the Meteorology of Mars," Journal of Meteorology, 7, 1, (1950).
_________________"Blue Haze and the Vertical Structure of the Martian Atmosphere," The Astrophysical Journal, 127, 743, (1958).

3. Ruppelt, Edward J., The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, (Doubleday, 1956), p.161.

4. Letter on file at NICAP.

5. Report on file at NICAP.

6. Ruppelt, Edward J., op. cit., p.303; True, May 1954.

7. Air Force letter on file at NICAP.

8. Quotes taken from Cant. Hull's report to John DuBarry, former associate editor of True magazine, published in CSI News letter by a New York UFO group of which DuBarry is president.

9. Report on file at NICAP.

10. From U.S. Air Force Intelligence Report.

11. Chapman, Robert, London Evening News, December 21, 1955; Frame from movie film reproduced in RAF Flying Review, London, July 1957.

12. It is not known whether any of these reports have been published.

13. All quotes taken from unclassified U.S. Air Force Intelligence Report. Exact date, names, and location were deleted in accordance with Air Force policy.

14 The average distance from the pilot's face to the windscreen was determined to be 2.27 feet for the F-86-D Sabre Jet, and about 2.50 feet maximum for most jets in operation at the time. The average pencil eraser is one-fourth of an inch in diameter. If the pilot's face was 2.50 feet from the wind screen, the diameter of the UFO was about 352 feet. Even allowing for appreciable error in the pilot's estimation of size, the true size of the UFO would be well over 100 feet diameter.

15. Roerich, Nicholas, Altai-Himalaya, (Fred Stokes, N.Y., 1929), Part II, ppg. 361-362.


Section II, Intelligent Control (pages 9-17)
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